How to format your references using the Trends in Ecology & Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Ecology & Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2010) Whole-animal imaging: The whole picture. Nature 463, 977–980
A journal article with 2 authors
Bland, M.L. and Birnbaum, M.J. (2011) Cell biology. ADaPting to energetic stress. Science 332, 1387–1388
A journal article with 3 authors
Dehaene-Lambertz, G. et al. (2002) Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science 298, 2013–2015
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Shaw, P. et al. (2006) Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents. Nature 440, 676–679

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rabe, J.L. and Martorana, R.J. (2014) Alts Democratized, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lamarche, G. et al., eds. (2016) Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences: 7th International Symposium, 1st ed. 2016., 41Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bengler, K. et al. (2012) Automotive. In Information Ergonomics: A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation (Stein, M. and Sandl, P., eds), pp. 99–134, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 01-Aug-(2014) , Neil deGrasse Tyson Annihilates Anti-GMO Argument. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Actions to Strengthen Its Enforcement Program, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Christian, T.M. (2012) , Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings. , Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes, B. and Buckley, C. 08-Jan-(2017) , ‘La La Land’ Dominates With Record Wins. , New York Times, C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Ecology & Evolution
AbbreviationTrends Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0169-5347
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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