How to format your references using the Trends in Ecology & Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Ecology & Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, Q. (2014) Rural students are being left behind in China. Nature 510, 445
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradshaw, G.A. and Finlay, B.L. (2005) Natural symmetry. Nature 435, 149
A journal article with 3 authors
Stracker, T.H. et al. (2002) Adenovirus oncoproteins inactivate the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 DNA repair complex. Nature 418, 348–352
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Snow, R.W. et al. (2005) The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 434, 214–217

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marvin, S. (2010) Dictionary of Scientific Principles, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kolymbas, D. and Viggiani, G., eds. (2009) Mechanics of Natural Solids, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kang, K. et al. (2015) Simultaneously Retargeting and Super-Resolution for Stereoscopic Video. In Computer Vision: CCF Chinese Conference, CCCV 2015, Xi’an, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (Zha, H. et al., eds), pp. 31–40, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

Blog post
Fang, J. 13-Oct-(2014) , Frozen Poop Pills Could Fight Deadly Infections. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Information Technology: Critical Factors Underlying Successful Major Acquisitions, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abrahamian, A. (2012) , Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians. , Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. 01-Feb-(2017) , Theater; Into the Trenches of World War I. , New York Times, AR4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Ecology & Evolution
AbbreviationTrends Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0169-5347
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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