How to format your references using the Trends in Ecology & Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Ecology & Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
zur Hausen, H. (2011) Science addict. Nature 478, S12
A journal article with 2 authors
Piou, T. and Rovis, T. (2015) Rhodium-catalysed syn-carboamination of alkenes via a transient directing group. Nature 527, 86–90
A journal article with 3 authors
Delhase, M. et al. (2000) Kinase regulation in inflammatory response. Nature 406, 367–368
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Tang, C.-B. et al. (2014) Evolutionary origin of asymptotically stable consensus. Sci. Rep. 4, 4590

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aksamija, A. (2016) Integrating Innovation in Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Matucci-Cerinic, M. et al., eds. (2014) Skin Manifestations in Rheumatic Disease, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Basu, D. et al. (2016) Regularized Cost-Model Oblivious Database Tuning with Reinforcement Learning. In Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXVIII: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications (Hameurlain, A. et al., eds), pp. 96–132, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

Blog post
Hale, T. 24-May-(2016) , Indonesia Sets Fire To Endangered Stuffed Animals In Their Fight Against Poachers. , IFLScience. [Online]. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Student Loans: Characteristics of Defaulted Borrowers in the Stafford Student Loan Program, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, C.S. (2017) , Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J.R. 13-Oct-(2016) , One Day, Cars Will Connect With Your Fridge and Your Heart. , New York Times, B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Ecology & Evolution
AbbreviationTrends Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (print)0169-5347
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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