How to format your references using the Traumatology: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traumatology: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franklin, A. D. (2013). Electronics: the road to carbon nanotube transistors. Nature, 498(7455), 443–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Makino, S., & Suzuki, M. (2001). Bacterial genomic reorganization upon DNA replication. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5518), 803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, C. A., Leroi, A. M., & Burt, A. (2011). Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6015), 303.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bailey, J. A., Gu, Z., Clark, R. A., Reinert, K., Samonte, R. V., Schwartz, S., … Eichler, E. E. (2002). Recent segmental duplications in the human genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5583), 1003–1007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Altman, M. C. (2011). Kant and Applied Ethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Umeda, S., Nakano, M., Mizuyama, H., Hibino, N., Kiritsis, D., & von Cieminski, G. (Eds.). (2015). Advances in Production Management Systems: Innovative Production Management Towards Sustainable Growth: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2015, Tokyo, Japan, September 7-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (1st ed. 2015). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hsu, C.-H., & Tsai, W.-C. (2015). A Design Strategy of Cultural and Creative Products on the Global Market. In P. L. P. Rau (Ed.), Cross-Cultural Design Methods, Practice and Impact: 7th International Conference, CCD 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 36–48). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traumatology: An International Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 10). Supermassive Black Holes Become Shrouded In Dust During Galaxy Mergers.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). NTSB Recommendations (No. T-RCED-87-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, H. (2017). Empathy in the Early Childhood Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions, Understanding and Practices (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chavez, L. (2005, November 17). Fellow Republicans, Open Your Doors. New York Times, p. A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Franklin, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Franklin, 2013; Makino & Suzuki, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Makino & Suzuki, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rebbeck, Leroi, & Burt, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bailey et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraumatology: An International Journal
AbbreviationTraumatology (Tallahass. Fla.)
ISSN (online)1085-9373
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Nursing

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