How to format your references using the Traumatology: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Traumatology: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ratnieks, F. (2005). Outsmarted by ants. Nature, 436(7050), 465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gan, J., & Appenzeller, T. (2014). 2013 Visualization Challenge. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6171), 599.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGuire, S. E., Le, P. T., & Davis, R. L. (2001). The role of Drosophila mushroom body signaling in olfactory memory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5533), 1330–1333.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kangas, A. T., Evans, A. R., Thesleff, I., & Jernvall, J. (2004). Nonindependence of mammalian dental characters. Nature, 432(7014), 211–214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu, A., Grossman, S. A., & Rosen, P. L. (2016). Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dobashi, Y., & Ochiai, H. (Eds.). (2016). Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis III: Selected and Extended Results from the Symposium MEIS2015 (Vol. 24). Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tempelmeier, T. (2012). Teaching ‘Concepts of Programming Languages’ with Ada. In M. Brorsson & L. M. Pinho (Eds.), Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2012: 17th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-15, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 60–74). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Traumatology: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 9). Octopus Vs. Jar. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Amtrak: Deteriorated Financial and Operating Conditions Threaten Long-Term Viability (No. T-RCED-95-98). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konggidinata, M. I. (2017). Application and Modifications of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC) for BTEX Removal: Characterization, Adsorption Mechanisms, and Kinetic Studies (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, May 31). An American Teenager Who Lives for Big Moments Produces One. New York Times, p. B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ratnieks, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gan & Appenzeller, 2014; Ratnieks, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gan & Appenzeller, 2014)
  • Three authors: (McGuire, Le, & Davis, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kangas, Evans, Thesleff, & Jernvall, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTraumatology: An International Journal
AbbreviationTraumatology (Tallahass. Fla.)
ISSN (online)1085-9373
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
General Nursing

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