How to format your references using the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruse, M. Perceptions in Science. Is Evolution a Secular Religion? Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 299, No. 5612, 2003, pp. 1523–1524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jarvis, P., and S. Linder. Constraints to Growth of Boreal Forests. Nature, Vol. 405, No. 6789, 2000, pp. 904–905.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velarde, E., E. Ezcurra, and D. W. Anderson. Seabird Diets Provide Early Warning of Sardine Fishery Declines in the Gulf of California. Scientific reports, Vol. 3, 2013, p. 1332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lehmann, W., H. Skupin, C. Tolksdorf, E. Gebhard, R. Zentel, P. Krüger, M. Lösche, and F. Kremer. Giant Lateral Electrostriction in Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers. Nature, Vol. 410, No. 6827, 2001, pp. 447–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewin, M. D. Better Software Project Management: A Primer for Success. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
Beer, M., I. A. Kougioumtzoglou, E. Patelli, and S.-K. Au, Eds. Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Qin, Y., L. Yao, and Q. Z. Sheng. Approximate Semantic Matching over Linked Data Streams. In Database and Expert Systems Applications: 27th International Conference, DEXA 2016, Porto, Portugal, September 5-8, 2016, Proceedings, Part II (S. Hartmann and H. Ma, eds.), Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Five Things I Learned When My Research Went Viral. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls Over Federal Payments for School Improvement, But More Consistent Monitoring Needed. Publication GAO-11-16. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullen, C. R. Factors Influencing Canadian Power Engineers’ Decision to Pursue Advanced Certification. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. Judge Rejects Plan to Alter City Pensions in Chicago. New York Times, Jul 25, 2015, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (1)
  • Three authors: (1)
  • Four or more authors: (1)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
AbbreviationTransp. Res. Rec.
ISSN (print)0361-1981
ISSN (online)2169-4052
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles