How to format your references using the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J. ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT: Ecologists Hope to Avoid the Mistakes of Previous Assessment. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 289, No. 5485, 2000, p. 1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong, F., and C. Yanofsky. Instruction of Translating Ribosome by Nascent Peptide. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 297, No. 5588, 2002, pp. 1864–1867.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sleutels, F., R. Zwart, and D. P. Barlow. The Non-Coding Air RNA Is Required for Silencing Autosomal Imprinted Genes. Nature, Vol. 415, No. 6873, 2002, pp. 810–813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pauwels, L., G. F. Barbero, J. Geerinck, S. Tilleman, W. Grunewald, A. C. Pérez, J. M. Chico, R. V. Bossche, J. Sewell, E. Gil, G. García-Casado, E. Witters, D. Inzé, J. A. Long, G. De Jaeger, R. Solano, and A. Goossens. NINJA Connects the Co-Repressor TOPLESS to Jasmonate Signalling. Nature, Vol. 464, No. 7289, 2010, pp. 788–791.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rich, P. Understanding, Assessing, and Rehabilitating Juvenile Sexual Offenders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Sawyer, S. W., and I. Stewart, Eds. In Search of the Liberal Moment: Democracy, Anti-Totalitarianism, and Intellectual Politics in France since 1950. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Soto, J., I. Campos, and R. Martínez-Máñez. Monitoring Wastewater Treatment Using Voltammetric Electronic Tongues. In Smart Sensors for Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring (S. C. Mukhopadhyay and A. Mason, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Blog post
Taub, B. Monkeys Can Now Type The Works Of Shakespeare Using Just Their Brains. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Launch Services New Entrant Certification Guide. Publication GAO-13-317R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, B. N. Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Rain Stopped, and Weirdness Began. New York Times, Oct 28, 2011, p. B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (1)
  • Three authors: (1)
  • Four or more authors: (1)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
AbbreviationTransp. Res. Rec.
ISSN (print)0361-1981
ISSN (online)2169-4052
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

Other styles