How to format your references using the Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (TRR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Empire Building: Vienna. Nature, Vol. 416, No. 6881, 2002, pp. 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alsdorf, D. E., and D. P. Lettenmaier. Geophysics. Tracking Fresh Water from Space. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 301, No. 5639, 2003, pp. 1491–1494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horodecki, M., J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter. Partial Quantum Information. Nature, Vol. 436, No. 7051, 2005, pp. 673–676.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cohen, G. L., J. Garcia, N. Apfel, and A. Master. Reducing the Racial Achievement Gap: A Social-Psychological Intervention. Science (New York, N.Y.), Vol. 313, No. 5791, 2006, pp. 1307–1310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noyer, J.-M. Transformation of Collective Intelligences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Gillispie, C. C. Lazare and Sadi Carnot: A Scientific and Filial Relationship. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Jankowski, D., and K. Jackowski. Evolutionary Algorithm for Decision Tree Induction. In Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 13th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 5-7, 2014. Proceedings (K. Saeed and V. Snášel, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Five Ways To Keep Your Home Warm This Winter. IFLScience. Accessed Oct. 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IT Supply Chain: National Security-Related Agencies Need to Better Address Risks. Publication GAO-12-361. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, R. H. Comparing the Effects of Traditional Face-to-Face, Technology-Based, and Blended Instructional Strategies in a Post-Secondary Spanish Language Learning Environment. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Wozniacki Is Lining Up for New York Marathon. New York Times, Jul 31, 2014, p. B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (1)
  • Three authors: (1)
  • Four or more authors: (1)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
AbbreviationTransp. Res. Rec.
ISSN (print)0361-1981
ISSN (online)2169-4052
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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