How to format your references using the Toxicon: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadeau, J.H., 2003. Genetics. Modifying the message. Science 301, 927–928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roweis, S.T., Saul, L.K., 2000. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction by locally linear embedding. Science 290, 2323–2326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Hoof, C., Baert, K., Witvrouw, A., 2004. Physics. The best materials for tiny, clever sensors. Science 306, 986–987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hellebrand, E., Snow, J.E., Dick, H.J., Hofmann, A.W., 2001. Coupled major and trace elements as indicators of the extent of melting in mid-ocean-ridge peridotites. Nature 410, 677–681.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, A., 2005. Wireless and Mobile Data Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Peleg, D. (Ed.), 2011. Distributed Computing: 25th International Symposium, DISC 2011, Rome, Italy, September 20-22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hesp, P.A., Hilton, M.J., 2013. Restoration of Foredunes and Transgressive Dunefields: Case Studies from New Zealand, in: Martínez, M.L., Gallego-Fernández, J.B., Hesp, P.A. (Eds.), Restoration of Coastal Dunes, Springer Series on Environmental Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 67–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon: X.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Playing Tetris Could Reduce Cravings For Drugs, Food and Sex [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects (No. GAO-10-227SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, M.S., 2009. Solid families: Community-based program for pregnant and parenting adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M., 2012. Blessed Among Women. New York Times BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadeau, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nadeau, 2003; Roweis and Saul, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roweis and Saul, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Hellebrand et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon: X
ISSN (print)2590-1710

Other styles