How to format your references using the Toxicon: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, T.A., 2007. Obituary: Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007). Nature 450, 809.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coates, J.C., de Bono, M., 2002. Antagonistic pathways in neurons exposed to body fluid regulate social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 419, 925–929.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duckworth, R.A., Belloni, V., Anderson, S.R., 2015. Evolutionary ecology. Cycles of species replacement emerge from locally induced maternal effects on offspring behavior in a passerine bird. Science 347, 875–877.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ngo, T.T.M., Moufarrej, M.N., Rasmussen, M.-L.H., Camunas-Soler, J., Pan, W., Okamoto, J., Neff, N.F., Liu, K., Wong, R.J., Downes, K., Tibshirani, R., Shaw, G.M., Skotte, L., Stevenson, D.K., Biggio, J.R., Elovitz, M.A., Melbye, M., Quake, S.R., 2018. Noninvasive blood tests for fetal development predict gestational age and preterm delivery. Science 360, 1133–1136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J., Wang, Q., 2012. Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Pollert, J., Dedus, B. (Eds.), 2006. Security of Water Supply Systems: from Source to Tap, NATO Security through Science Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Vespucci, M.T., Bertocchi, M., Tomasgard, A., Innorta, M., 2013. Integration of Wind Power Production in a Conventional Power Production System: Stochastic Models and Performance Measures, in: Pardalos, P.M., Rebennack, S., Pereira, M.V.F., Iliadis, N.A., Pappu, V. (Eds.), Handbook of Wind Power Systems, Energy Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 129–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon: X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Plant Fungi Impact How Monarch Butterflies Fight Disease [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Request for Assistance on Allegations From K. R. Higgins Concerning Planning Research Corporation’s Contract at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center (No. LCD-77-345). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, J.D., 2009. From the belly of the HUAC: The HUAC investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006. QUICK BITE | Peapack; Chocolate And a Touch Of Chic. New York Times 14NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2007; Coates and de Bono, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coates and de Bono, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ngo et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon: X
ISSN (print)2590-1710

Other styles