How to format your references using the Toxicon: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gopnik, A., 2012. Scientific thinking in young children: theoretical advances, empirical research, and policy implications. Science 337, 1623–1627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, S.R., Stuart, G.J., 2002. Dependence of EPSP efficacy on synapse location in neocortical pyramidal neurons. Science 295, 1907–1910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma, B.R., Manjanath, A., Singh, A.K., 2014. Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Sci. Rep. 4, 7164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boratyński, Z., Lehmann, P., Mappes, T., Mousseau, T.A., Møller, A.P., 2014. Increased radiation from Chernobyl decreases the expression of red colouration in natural populations of bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Sci. Rep. 4, 7141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunnivant, F.M., Anders, E., 2005. A Basic Introduction to Pollutant Fate and Transport. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bartl, R., 2009. Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Prevention, Therapy, Second Revised Edition. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Davis, A.B., Polonsky, I.N., 2005. Approximation Methods in Atmospheric 3D Radiative Transfer Part 1: Resolved Variability and Phenomenology, in: Marshak, A., Davis, A. (Eds.), 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres, Physics of Earth and Space Environments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 283–340.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon: X.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Does Green Mucus Mean You’re Infectious And Need Antibiotics? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-05-29R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eng, R., 2014. Exploring Investors’ Decision Making Processes During the 2008 Financial Crisis Using Epstein’s Cognitive Experiential Self-Theory: A Multiple-case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Turkewitz, J., Stolberg, S.G., Eligon, J., Blinder, A., 2017. Before the Gunfire in Virginia, A Volatile Home Life in Illinois. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gopnik, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gopnik, 2012; Williams and Stuart, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Stuart, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Boratyński et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon: X
ISSN (print)2590-1710

Other styles