How to format your references using the Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fung, Inez. 2013. “Atmospheric Science. A Hyperventilating Biosphere.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6150): 1075–1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Garrott, Robert A., and Madan K. Oli. 2013. “Conservation. A Critical Crossroad for BLM’s Wild Horse Program.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6148): 847–848.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hasnaoui, A., H. Van Swygenhoven, and P. M. Derlet. 2003. “Dimples on Nanocrystalline Fracture Surfaces as Evidence for Shear Plane Formation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5625): 1550–1552.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Eiserhardt, Wolf L., Jens-Christian Svenning, William J. Baker, Thomas L. P. Couvreur, and Henrik Balslev. 2013. “Dispersal and Niche Evolution Jointly Shape the Geographic Turnover of Phylogenetic Clades across Continents.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, Arthur E., Gordon Geiger, and H. Alan Fine. 2011. Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Material Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Coohill, Patricia Trutty, ed. 2010. Art Inspiring Transmutations of Life. Vol. 106. Analecta Husserliana, The Yearbook of Phenomenological Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Tianran, Yi Zhang, Haibin Yu, and Feiyue Wang. 2012. “Key Technologies.” In Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050, edited by Tianran Wang, Yi Zhang, Haibin Yu, and Feiyue Wang, 31–87. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Zoo Elephants’ Welfare Is More Affected By Social Interaction Than Enclosure Size.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. International Air Travelers: CBP Collaborates with Stakeholders to Facilitate the Arrivals Process, but Could Strengthen Reporting of Airport Wait Times. GAO-17-470. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crossman, Donna Cangelosi. 2008. “The Impact of Safety Culture on Worker Motivation and the Economic Bottom Line.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “France Loses to the U.S., With Typical Elegance.” New York Times, July 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fung 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Fung 2013; Garrott and Oli 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Garrott and Oli 2013)
  • Three authors: (Hasnaoui, Van Swygenhoven, and Derlet 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Eiserhardt et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological & Environmental Chemistry
AbbreviationToxicol. Environ. Chem.
ISSN (print)0277-2248
ISSN (online)1029-0486
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles