How to format your references using the Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichtenthaler, Stefan F. 2012. “Cell Biology. Sheddase Gets Guidance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6065): 179–180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindenbach, Brett D., and Charles M. Rice. 2005. “Unravelling Hepatitis C Virus Replication from Genome to Function.” Nature 436 (7053): 933–938.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ivany, L. C., W. P. Patterson, and K. C. Lohmann. 2000. “Cooler Winters as a Possible Cause of Mass Extinctions at the Eocene/Oligocene Boundary.” Nature 407 (6806): 887–890.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kojima, Hisaya, Riho Tokizawa, Kouhei Kogure, Yuki Kobayashi, Masayuki Itoh, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, Noboru Okuda, and Manabu Fukui. 2014. “Community Structure of Planktonic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Subtropical Reservoir Characterized by Dominance of Phylotype Closely Related to Nitrite Reducer.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang, Chang W., and Paul H. Kvam. 2011. Basic Statistical Tools for Improving Quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ortmeier, Frank, and Peter Daniel, eds. 2012. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings. Vol. 7612. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hosoda, Masae, Yukie Akune, and Kiyoko F. Aoki-Kinoshita. 2012. “Multiple Tree Alignment with Weights Applied to Carbohydrates to Extract Binding Recognition Patterns.” In Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: 7th IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2012, Tokyo, Japan, November 8-10, 2012. Proceedings, edited by Tetsuo Shibuya, Hisashi Kashima, Jun Sese, and Shandar Ahmad, 49–58. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Rats Will Choose Friendship Over Food.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Detroit City Airport. RCED-92-169R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moris, Francisco A. 2015. “International Trade in Research and Development Services and the Activity of MNC Subsidiaries.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “Supreme Court Turns Down Detainees’ Habeas Corpus Case.” New York Times, April 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lichtenthaler 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lichtenthaler 2012; Lindenbach and Rice 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lindenbach and Rice 2005)
  • Three authors: (Ivany, Patterson, and Lohmann 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kojima et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological & Environmental Chemistry
AbbreviationToxicol. Environ. Chem.
ISSN (print)0277-2248
ISSN (online)1029-0486
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles