How to format your references using the Tourism Planning & Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tourism Planning & Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmgren, A. (2008). Biochemistry. SNO removal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5879), 1019–1020.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bensinger, S. J., & Tontonoz, P. (2008). Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature, 454(7203), 470–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pepe, F., Ehrenreich, D., & Meyer, M. R. (2014). Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature, 513(7518), 358–366.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Crookes, W. J., Ding, L.-L., Huang, Q. L., Kimbell, J. R., Horwitz, J., & McFall-Ngai, M. J. (2004). Reflectins: the unusual proteins of squid reflective tissues. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 235–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Will, H. (2011). »Sei naiv und mach’ ein Experiment«: Feodor Lynen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Feige, J.-J., Pagès, G., & Soncin, F. (Eds.). (2014). Molecular Mechanisms of Angiogenesis: From Ontogenesis to Oncogenesis. Paris: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Deblonde, M. (2010). Responsible Agro-Food Biotechnology: Precaution as Public Reflexivity and Ongoing Engagement in the Service of Sustainable Development. In F.-T. Gottwald, H. W. Ingensiep, & M. Meinhardt (Eds.), Food Ethics (pp. 67–85). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tourism Planning & Development.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 30). Energy Department’s Climate Office Banned From Using Phrase “Climate Change.” Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Information and Technology Management: Responsibilities, Reporting Relationships, Tenure, and Challenges of Agency Chief Information Officers (No. GAO-04-957T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, J. D. (2014). The Investigation of Self-Determination in Students Participating in Higher Education with an Invisible Disability (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017, January 28). Trump’s ‘Carnage’ Label Misses Complex Reality of Many Urban Areas. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmgren, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bensinger & Tontonoz, 2008; Holmgren, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bensinger & Tontonoz, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Pepe, Ehrenreich, & Meyer, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Crookes et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTourism Planning & Development
ISSN (print)2156-8316
ISSN (online)2156-8324
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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