How to format your references using the Thinking & Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking & Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapron, G. (2014). Challenge the abuse of science in setting policy. Nature, 516(7531), 289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gut, P., & Verdin, E. (2013). The nexus of chromatin regulation and intermediary metabolism. Nature, 502(7472), 489–498.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rulifson, E. J., Kim, S. K., & Nusse, R. (2002). Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in flies: growth and diabetic phenotypes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5570), 1118–1120.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nowakowski, T. J., Bhaduri, A., Pollen, A. A., Alvarado, B., Mostajo-Radji, M. A., Di Lullo, E., Haeussler, M., Sandoval-Espinosa, C., Liu, S. J., Velmeshev, D., Ounadjela, J. R., Shuga, J., Wang, X., Lim, D. A., West, J. A., Leyrat, A. A., Kent, W. J., & Kriegstein, A. R. (2017). Spatiotemporal gene expression trajectories reveal developmental hierarchies of the human cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 358(6368), 1318–1323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings, S. (2015). Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ince, A. N., & Bragg, A. (Eds.). (2007). Recent Advances in Modeling and Simulation Tools for Communication Networks and Services. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Connelly, W. M. (2014). Neurosteroids and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors. In A. C. Errington, G. Di Giovanni, & V. Crunelli (Eds.), Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors (pp. 75–84). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking & Reasoning.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, November 30). Why So Many People Regain Weight After Dieting. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Homeland Security: Progress Made to Implement IT Reform, but Additional Chief Information Officer Involvement Needed (GAO-17-284). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gurska, D. P. (2017). Peering Down the Bottomless Well: Myth in Thomas Mann’s Joseph Tetralogy [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 9). With Team Skating, it’s Now Kiss, Cry, Squeeze in. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapron, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chapron, 2014; Gut & Verdin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gut & Verdin, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Rulifson et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nowakowski et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking & Reasoning
AbbreviationThink. Reason.
ISSN (print)1354-6783
ISSN (online)1464-0708
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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