How to format your references using the Thinking & Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking & Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helmuth, L. (2000). NEUROSCIENCE: Tips for Neuroscience Neophytes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5492), 699.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ee, R., & Anderson, B. L. (2001). Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matching. Nature, 410(6829), 690–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anuar, T. S., Salleh, F. M., & Moktar, N. (2014). Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia. Scientific Reports, 4, 4101.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nonoguchi, Y., Ohashi, K., Kanazawa, R., Ashiba, K., Hata, K., Nakagawa, T., Adachi, C., Tanase, T., & Kawai, T. (2013). Systematic conversion of single walled carbon nanotubes into n-type thermoelectric materials by molecular dopants. Scientific Reports, 3, 3344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bhaskar, K., & Varadan Retd., T. K. (2014). Plates. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Davidson, M. H., Toth, P. P., Maki, K. C., & Gotto, A. M. (Eds.). (2007). Therapeutic Lipidology. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Bellocchio, F., Borghese, N. A., Ferrari, S., & Piuri, V. (2013). Hierarchical Radial Basis Functions Networks. In N. A. Borghese, S. Ferrari, & V. Piuri (Eds.), 3D Surface Reconstruction: Multi-Scale Hierarchical Approaches (pp. 77–110). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking & Reasoning.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, May 12). Ghost Ship Washes Up On Liberian Coast With Crew Missing. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure (GAO-01-633). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cho, Y. (2013). Chinese restaurant business and Taiwanese pentecostalism in Southern California [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, July 1). A Local Board’s Coup On the Upper West Side. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helmuth, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Helmuth, 2000; van Ee & Anderson, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ee & Anderson, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Anuar et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nonoguchi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking & Reasoning
AbbreviationThink. Reason.
ISSN (print)1354-6783
ISSN (online)1464-0708
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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