How to format your references using the Thinking & Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thinking & Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quinn, H. (2000). No conflict between SLAC and Japan’s KEK. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Nature, 404(6779), 701.
A journal article with 2 authors
Min, J.-H., & Pavletich, N. P. (2007). Recognition of DNA damage by the Rad4 nucleotide excision repair protein. Nature, 449(7162), 570–575.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi, S., Li, H., & Poulos, T. L. (2013). Structural basis for effector control and redox partner recognition in cytochrome P450. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6137), 1227–1230.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hennige, S. J., Morrison, C. L., Form, A. U., Büscher, J., Kamenos, N. A., & Roberts, J. M. (2014). Self-recognition in corals facilitates deep-sea habitat engineering. Scientific Reports, 4, 6782.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood, T., Anderson, M., & Analytics, F. (2010). The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sun, B. (Ed.). (2014). T Helper Cell Differentiation and Their Function (Vol. 841). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas, M. O. J., & Palmer, J. M. (2014). Teaching with Digital Technology: Obstacles and Opportunities. In A. Clark-Wilson, O. Robutti, & N. Sinclair (Eds.), The Mathematics Teacher in the Digital Era: An International Perspective on Technology Focused Professional Development (pp. 71–89). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thinking & Reasoning.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, December 7). Cassini Snaps Sublime Close-Up Images Of Saturn’s North Pole. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Public Transit: Federal and Transit Agencies Taking Steps to Build Transit Systems’ Resilience but Face Challenges (No. GAO-15-159). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrera, K. (2010). Improved transportation for older adult volunteers: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. R. (2015, August 20). Mr. Trump, Korea’s Border Is Huge! New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quinn, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Min & Pavletich, 2007; Quinn, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Min & Pavletich, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Tripathi, Li, & Poulos, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hennige et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThinking & Reasoning
AbbreviationThink. Reason.
ISSN (print)1354-6783
ISSN (online)1464-0708
Psychology (miscellaneous)
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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