How to format your references using the Theory, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2009) ‘State of Energy’, Nature 458(7242): 1208–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cryan, J.F. and O.F. O’Leary (2010) ‘Neuroscience A Glutamate Pathway to Faster-Acting Antidepressants?’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 329(5994): 913–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oh, J.S. et al. (2011) ‘Protein Tyrosine Kinase Wee1B Is Essential for Metaphase II Exit in Mouse Oocytes’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6028): 462–5.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kiel, M.J. et al. (2007) ‘Haematopoietic Stem Cells Do Not Asymmetrically Segregate Chromosomes or Retain BrdU’, Nature 449(7159): 238–42.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sheldrake, P. (2014) The Spiritual City. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Huang, X. and J. Zhou (eds) (2014) Information Security Practice and Experience: 10th International Conference, ISPEC 2014, Fuzhou, China, May 5-8, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 8434). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, A. (2016) ‘Diagnosis of Lateral Extensions’, pp. 29–37 in Oyama, T. (ed.), Endoscopic Diagnosis of Superficial Gastric Cancer for ESD. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, October 30) ‘Mushrooms’ Spores Might Help Make It Rain’, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Delegation of GSA Procurement Authority for Automatic Data Processing Equipment Acquisitions ( No. B-115369).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel, M. (2013) The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2001, May 20) ‘Still Huffing, Still Puffing’, New York Times: 720.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Cryan and O’Leary, 2010; Smaglik, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cryan and O’Leary, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiel et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory, Culture & Society
AbbreviationTheory Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0263-2764
ISSN (online)1460-3616
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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