How to format your references using the Theory, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fine, I. (2014) ‘Sensory Systems: Do You Hear What I See?’, Nature 508(7497): 461–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R. and F.M. Selten (2014) ‘Future Increases in Arctic Precipitation Linked to Local Evaporation and Sea-Ice Retreat’, Nature 509(7501): 479–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Egholm, D.L. et al. (2013) ‘Lifespan of Mountain Ranges Scaled by Feedbacks between Landsliding and Erosion by Rivers’, Nature 498(7455): 475–8.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Staskawicz, B.J. et al. (2001) ‘Common and Contrasting Themes of Plant and Animal Diseases’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5525): 2285–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yamaguchi, R. and K.-I. Fujita (2014) Ligand Platforms in Homogenous Catalytic Reactions with Metals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martin, R. et al. (eds) (2005) Mathematics of Surfaces XI: 11th IMA International Conference, Loughborough, UK, September 5-7, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Vol. 3604). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosencrantz, H. (2013) ‘Policy Objectives and the Functions of Transport Systems’, pp. 67–82 in Vries, M.J. de et al. (eds), Norms in Technology, Philosophy of Engineering and Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 21) ‘Scientist Spotlight: Frederick Sanger’, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) [Comments on Proposed Oregon Purchase of Rail Line With Oil Overcharge Settlement] ( No. B-226517).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mardakhanian, A. (2015) Blended CME, Inc. A business plan (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, May 12) ‘Parents Aim to Keep a Gifted Program’s Fire Going’, New York Times: 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fine, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bintanja and Selten, 2014; Fine, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and Selten, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Staskawicz et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory, Culture & Society
AbbreviationTheory Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0263-2764
ISSN (online)1460-3616
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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