How to format your references using the Theory, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theory, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chong, Y. (2013) ‘Optical Devices: Photonic Insulators with a Twist’, Nature 496(7444): 173–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu, X. and N.P. Harberd (2003) ‘Auxin Promotes Arabidopsis Root Growth by Modulating Gibberellin Response’, Nature 421(6924): 740–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Y. et al. (2014) ‘The High-Speed Sliding Friction of Graphene and Novel Routes to Persistent Superlubricity’, Scientific Reports 4: 4875.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, W.B. et al. (2004) ‘Powering Fuel Cells with CO via Aqueous Polyoxometalates and Gold Catalysts’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 305(5688): 1280–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sapienza, A.M. (2004) Managing Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cheng, M. (ed.) (2009) Nano-Net: Third International ICST Conference, NanoNet 2008, Boston, MA, USA, September 14-16, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (Vol. 3). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hawley, T.S. (2010) ‘Self-Study Methodology as a Means Toward Ongoing Rationale Development and Refinement’, pp. 55–70 in Crowe, A.R. (ed.), Advancing Social Studies Education through Self-Study Methodology: The Power, Promise, and Use of Self-Study in Social Studies Education, Self Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theory, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, February 9) ‘Claims Female Genital Mutilation Can Have Evolutionary Benefits Are Unproven And Potentially Damaging’, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Federal Judicial Space Follow-up ( No. GGD-94-135R).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zehnder, D.W. (2003) Host-[2]Rotaxane: A Novel Molecular Machine (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2007, October 18) ‘Coziness, With Good Lines’, New York Times: F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chong, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Chong, 2013; Fu and Harberd, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fu and Harberd, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTheory, Culture & Society
AbbreviationTheory Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)0263-2764
ISSN (online)1460-3616
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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