How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl R. Back to basics. Nature 2002;420:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korkusinski M, Hawrylak P. Quantum strain sensor with a topological insulator HgTe quantum dot. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:4903.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley J, Reuter D, Frings S. Facilitation of calmodulin-mediated odor adaptation by cAMP-gated channel subunits. Science 2001;294:2176–8.
A journal article with 41 or more authors
Huang Z-G, Dong J-Q, Huang L, Lai Y-C. Universal flux-fluctuation law in small systems. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:6787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saguet P. Numerical Analysis in Electromagnetics. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Martin G, Müller W, editors. UML for SOC Design. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Lotke PA, Simon RG. Flexion Contracture in Total Knee Arthroplasty. In: Scuderi GR, Tria AJ, editors. Knee Arthroplasty Handbook: Techniques in Total Knee and Revision Arthroplasty New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Rosetta Is The Greatest Space Mission Of Our Lifetime [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Restructured Neighborhood Youth Corps Out-of-School Program in Urban Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Apr. Report No.: B-130515.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim S-C. Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002 [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Nassau and Suffolk Expecting More Funds. New York Times 2008;LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
AbbreviationScand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0036-5513
ISSN (online)1502-7686
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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