How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lack HW. Floral tributes. Nature 2001;411:137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yaghoubi A, Mélinon P. Tunable synthesis and in situ growth of silicon-carbon mesostructures using impermeable plasma. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:1083.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD. Does rejection hurt? An FMRI study of social exclusion. Science 2003;302:290–2.
A journal article with 41 or more authors
Bourrier V, Lovis C, Beust H, Ehrenreich D, Henry GW, Astudillo-Defru N, Allart R, Bonfils X, Ségransan D, Delfosse X, Cegla HM, Wyttenbach A, Heng K, Lavie B, Pepe F. Orbital misalignment of the Neptune-mass exoplanet GJ 436b with the spin of its cool star. Nature 2018;553:477–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McDonnell G, Sheard D. A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Gdoutos EE, editor. Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference of Fracture, Alexandroupolis, Greece, July 3–7, 2006. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolotnikov V, Kheifets A. The Higher Order Carathéodory—Julia Theorem and Related Boundary Interpolation Problems. In: Ball JA, Eidelman Y, Helton JW, Olshevsky V, Rovnyak J, editors. Recent Advances in Matrix and Operator Theory Basel: Birkhäuser; 2008. p. 63–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew D. These Are 13 Of The Hottest Places On Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Buy America Requirements: Federal Enforcement Questioned in Sacramento Mass Transit Procurement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: RCED-87-162FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes MA. Cognitive science approaches to actor training: Interrogating conceptual language [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Armstrong Finds a Mixed Reception in Triathlon. New York Times 2012;B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
AbbreviationScand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0036-5513
ISSN (online)1502-7686
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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