How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walt DR. Chemistry. Miniature analytical methods for medical diagnostics. Science 2005;308:217–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fukuchi-Shimogori T, Grove EA. Neocortex patterning by the secreted signaling molecule FGF8. Science 2001;294:1071–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dewar JM, Budzowska M, Walter JC. The mechanism of DNA replication termination in vertebrates. Nature 2015;525:345–50.
A journal article with 41 or more authors
Hampton J, Sibert JR, Kleiber P, Maunder MN, Harley SJ. Fisheries: decline of Pacific tuna populations exaggerated? Nature 2005;434:E1-2; discussion E2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirsh SJ. Media and Youth. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Capasso F. Lassativi: Impiego razionale dei lassativi nella stipsi. D’Argenio G, editor. Milano: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Argamon S, Koppel M. The Rest of the Story: Finding Meaning in Stylistic Variation. In: Argamon S, Burns K, Dubnov S, editors. The Structure of Style: Algorithmic Approaches to Understanding Manner and Meaning Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 79–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
Davis J. There Might be Fewer Galaxies out in the Universe Than Expected [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. TANF and Child Welfare Programs: Increased Data Sharing Could Improve Access to Benefits and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Oct. Report No.: GAO-12-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danso Odei PK. Effective Resolution of The Bibiani-Anhwianso-Bekwai District Healthcare Delivery System: An Outcome-Based Evaluative Case [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR N, Kishkovsky S. Russian Theater Director Fired for Offending Christians. New York Times 2015;A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
AbbreviationScand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0036-5513
ISSN (online)1502-7686
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

Other styles