How to format your references using the The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaplan K. Personnel dilemma. Nature 2009;458:372–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dezhina I, Graham LR. Research funding. Science foundations: a novelty in Russian science. Science 2005;310:1772–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song C, Wang P, Makse HA. A phase diagram for jammed matter. Nature 2008;453:629–32.
A journal article with 41 or more authors
Seo J-S, Jeon J-H, Hwang YH, Park H, Ryu M, Park S-HK, Bae B-S. Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler H. Food Industry Innovation School, The. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Welfens PJJ, Ryan C, Chirathivat S, Knipping F, editors. EU - Asean: Facing Economic Globalisation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Perlovsky L, Deming R, Ilin R. Epilogue Future Research Directions. In: Deming R, Ilin R, editors. Emotional Cognitive Neural Algorithms with Engineering Applications: Dynamic Logic: FromVague to Crisp Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 175–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
Andrews R. The Paris Climate Change Agreement Was Officially Activated Today [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Congressional Action Needed to Improve Chapter 1 Handicapped Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: HRD-89-54.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saldivar N. Understanding the impact of AB-12 on the child welfare workforce [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Taking in the History of a City Shaped by the Sea. New York Times 2014;CT10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation
AbbreviationScand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0036-5513
ISSN (online)1502-7686
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
General Medicine

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