How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rutter, Jared. 2002. “Essay: Amersham Biosciences and Science Prize. PAS Domains and Metabolic Status Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5598): 1567–1568.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kump, Lee R., and Mark E. Barley. 2007. “Increased Subaerial Volcanism and the Rise of Atmospheric Oxygen 2.5 Billion Years Ago.” Nature 448 (7157): 1033–1036.
A journal article with 3 authors
Causier, Barry, Martin Kieffer, and Brendan Davies. 2002. “Plant Biology. MADS-Box Genes Reach Maturity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 275–276.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tomioka, H., E. Iwamoto, H. Itakura, and K. Hirai. 2001. “Generation and Characterization of a Fairly Stable Triplet Carbene.” Nature 412 (6847): 626–628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, Basem Said. 2005. Axiomatic Quality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kadarmideen, Haja N., ed. 2016. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Angelini, Patrizio, Fabrizio Frati, and Luca Grilli. 2009. “An Algorithm to Construct Greedy Drawings of Triangulations.” In Graph Drawing: 16th International Symposium, GD 2008, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 21-24, 2008. Revised Papers, edited by Ioannis G. Tollis and Maurizio Patrignani, 26–37. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Men’s Magazine Prints Editions Using HIV-Infected Blood To Tackle Stigma.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (Exposure Draft) (Superseded by AIMD-10.1.21). AIMD-10.1.21. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gibb, Arthur. 2012. “Implementing U.S. Security Strategy in the 21st Century: A Three-Part Examination of the Evolving Role of the Military in American Foreign and Security Policy.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Megalogenis, George. 2016. “Powering Australia’s Economic Surge.” New York Times, November 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rutter 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Rutter 2002; Kump and Barley 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kump and Barley 2007)
  • Three authors: (Causier, Kieffer, and Davies 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tomioka et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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