How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tanaka, Kenneth L. 2005. “Geology and Insolation-Driven Climatic History of Amazonian North Polar Materials on Mars.” Nature 437 (7061): 991–994.
A journal article with 2 authors
Solanki, Sami K., and Natalie A. Krivova. 2011. “Astronomy. Analyzing Solar Cycles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6058): 916–917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, Koo Hyun, Il H. Park, and Seung Hwan Ko. 2012. “Patterning by Controlled Cracking.” Nature 485 (7397): 221–224.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guo, H. F., J. Tong, F. Hannan, L. Luo, and Y. Zhong. 2000. “A Neurofibromatosis-1-Regulated Pathway Is Required for Learning in Drosophila.” Nature 403 (6772): 895–898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, Laurent, and Juan Ospina. 2015. Closed-Form Solutions for Drug Transport through Controlled-Release Devices in Two and Three Dimensions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Warren, Narelle, and Lenore Manderson, eds. 2013. Reframing Disability and Quality of Life: A Global Perspective. Vol. 52. Social Indicators Research Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Meza-Jiménez, Jorge, Miguel Escamilla-López, and Ricardo Llamas-Cabello. 2014. “Statistical Process Control: A Vital Tool for Quality Assurance.” In Lean Manufacturing in the Developing World: Methodology, Case Studies and Trends from Latin America, edited by Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías, and Guillermo Cortes-Robles, 65–86. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. “The Science Of Laughter – And Why It Also Has A Dark Side.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Process Used by Department of Education To Award Contracts for Operation of Indian Education Resource and Evaluation Centers. HRD-81-100. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Fossen, Laurel. 2015. “The Communicative Use of Iconic Face Drawings to Express Emotional and Evaluative Statements in Persons with Aphasia.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Theater; The Last Days To Catch a Comet.” New York Times, August 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tanaka 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Tanaka 2005; Solanki and Krivova 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solanki and Krivova 2011)
  • Three authors: (Nam, Park, and Ko 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Guo et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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