How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, Alison. 2002. “Mouse Genome: The Real Deal.” Nature 420 (6915): 456–457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wohlers, Anke, and Bernard J. Wood. 2015. “A Mercury-like Component of Early Earth Yields Uranium in the Core and High Mantle (142)Nd.” Nature 520 (7547): 337–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGraw, Christopher M., Rodney C. Samaco, and Huda Y. Zoghbi. 2011. “Adult Neural Function Requires MeCP2.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6039): 186.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Petersen, Carl C. H., Michael Brecht, Thomas T. G. Hahn, and Bert Sakmann. 2004. “Synaptic Changes in Layer 2/3 Underlying Map Plasticity of Developing Barrel Cortex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5671): 739–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong, A. C. M., and S. C. Hui. 2006. Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Patton, Wendy. 2014. Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice. Edited by Mary McMahon. Vol. 2. Career Development Series, Connecting Theory and Practice. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Wenbin, and Chik How Tan. 2016. “A Secure Variant of Yasuda, Takagi and Sakurai’s Signature Scheme.” In Information Security and Cryptology: 11th International Conference, Inscrypt 2015, Beijing, China, November 1-3, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Dongdai Lin, Xiaofeng Wang, and Moti Yung, 75–89. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Stem Cell Therapy Allows Mice With MS-Like Condition To Walk Again.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Deferred Maintenance Reporting: Challenges to Implementation. AIMD-98-42. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iniguez, Aracely. 2013. “The Latino Immigrant Families and Involvement with Child Welfare System: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2016. “E.U. Official’s Move Fuels Talk of Merkel Challenge.” New York Times, November 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2002; Wohlers and Wood 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wohlers and Wood 2015)
  • Three authors: (McGraw, Samaco, and Zoghbi 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Petersen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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