How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimov, Sergey A. 2005. “Essays on Science and Society. Pleistocene Park: Return of the Mammoth’s Ecosystem.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5723): 796–798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas, Chris D., and Mark Williamson. 2012. “Extinction and Climate Change.” Nature 482 (7386): E4-5; author reply E5-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís, Erwin Bay, and Daniel Razansky. 2014. “Functional Optoacoustic Imaging of Moving Objects Using Microsecond-Delay Acquisition of Multispectral Three-Dimensional Tomographic Data.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5878.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wernet, Mathias F., Esteban O. Mazzoni, Arzu Çelik, Dianne M. Duncan, Ian Duncan, and Claude Desplan. 2006. “Stochastic Spineless Expression Creates the Retinal Mosaic for Colour Vision.” Nature 440 (7081): 174–180.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reid, Gavin. 2011. Dyslexia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Giese, Holger, ed. 2008. Models in Software Engineering: Workshops and Symposia at MoDELS 2007, Nashville, TN, USA, September 30 - October 5, 2007, Reports and Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 5002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrandiz, Thomas, and Vania Marangozova. 2008. “Managing Scheduling and Replication in the LHC Grid.” In Grid Middleware and Services: Challenges and Solutions, edited by Ramin Yahyapour and Wolfgang Ziegler, 65–77. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “AI Can Now ‘Draw’ Humans - And It’s Absolutely Horrifying.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Education Has Taken Steps to Improve Monitoring and Assistance, but Further Progress Is Needed. GAO-07-926T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carroll, William E. 2017. “Leadership and Emotional Intelligence: Ability-Based and Mixed Models of Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Leadership Performance across Manager Levels.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Goldstein, Matthew, Rachel Abrams, and Ben Protess. 2016. “Private Equity Hits Close to Home.” New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zimov 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Zimov 2005; Thomas and Williamson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas and Williamson 2012)
  • Three authors: (Deán-Ben, Bay, and Razansky 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wernet et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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