How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Godfray, H. Charles J. 2002. “Challenges for Taxonomy.” Nature 417 (6884): 17–19.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pagès, Vincent, and Robert P. Fuchs. 2003. “Uncoupling of Leading- and Lagging-Strand DNA Replication during Lesion Bypass in Vivo.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5623): 1300–1303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hinde, Camilla A., Rufus A. Johnstone, and Rebecca M. Kilner. 2010. “Parent-Offspring Conflict and Coadaptation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5971): 1373–1376.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Mingyu, Yanmei Dong, Qiushuang Zhao, Fangzhong Wang, Kuimei Liu, Baojie Jiang, and Xu Fang. 2014. “Identification of the Role of a MAP Kinase Tmk2 in Hypocrea Jecorina (Trichoderma Reesei).” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1994. Tools for Making Acute Risk Decisions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pasila, Felix, Yusak Tanoto, Resmana Lim, Murtiyanto Santoso, and Nemuel Daniel Pah, eds. 2016. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information 2015 (ICESTI 2015). 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 365. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, Eric, and Mark McCormack. 2016. “Bisexuality as a Unique Social Problem.” In The Changing Dynamics of Bisexual Men’s Lives: Social Research Perspectives, edited by Mark McCormack, 49–67. Focus on Sexuality Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Gravity Saved the Universe After the Big Bang.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. High Speed Rail: Learning From Service Start-Ups, Prospects for Increased Industry Investment, and Federal Oversight Plans. GAO-10-625. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norris, Eleanor Lou. 2008. “A Depth Psychological View of the Christian Myth: C. G. Jung, Elizabeth Boyden Howes, and the Guild for Psychological Studies.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “Who Says Religion and Science Don’t Mix?” New York Times, June 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Godfray 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Godfray 2002; Pagès and Fuchs 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pagès and Fuchs 2003)
  • Three authors: (Hinde, Johnstone, and Kilner 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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