How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grangier, Philippe. 2011. “Physics. Make It Quantum and Continuous.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6027): 313–314.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schrag, Daniel P., and Braddock K. Linsley. 2002. “Paleoclimate. Corals, Chemistry, and Climate.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 277–278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burstein, G. T., I. M. Hutchings, and K. Sasaki. 2000. “Electrochemically Induced Annealing of Stainless-Steel Surfaces.” Nature 407 (6806): 885–887.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ortiz, J. L., P. V. Sada, Bellot Rubio LR, F. J. Aceituno, J. Aceituno, P. J. Gutierrez, and U. Thiele. 2000. “Optical Detection of Meteoroidal Impacts on the Moon.” Nature 405 (6789): 921–923.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin, Ross. 2011. Implementing the Wealth Management Index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Devonshire-Ellis, Chris, Samantha L. Jones, and Eunice Ku, eds. 2012. The Yangtze River Delta: Business Guide to the Shanghai Region. 5th ed. 2012. China Briefing, The Practical Application of China Business. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mineev, V. P., and M. Sigrist. 2012. “Basic Theory of Superconductivity in Metals Without Inversion Center.” In Non-Centrosymmetric Superconductors: Introduction and Overview, edited by Ernst Bauer and Manfred Sigrist, 129–154. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “Mediterranean Diet May Protect Your Brain In Old Age, New Finding Suggests.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on Challenges to Ensuring the Integrity of Drug Testing Programs. GAO-08-220T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luong, Wanda. 2009. “An Identity Building Program for American-Born Children of Southeast Asian Refugees.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2014. “Conversation Between Works and Over Decades.” New York Times, December 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grangier 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Grangier 2011; Schrag and Linsley 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schrag and Linsley 2002)
  • Three authors: (Burstein, Hutchings, and Sasaki 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ortiz et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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