How to format your references using the The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becker, Sandy. 2014. “Rhubarb Pie and Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6203): 1534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bernstein, Alan, and Janet Rossant. 2013. “Anthony James Pawson (1952-2013).” Nature 501 (7466): 168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goda, K., K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali. 2009. “Serial Time-Encoded Amplified Imaging for Real-Time Observation of Fast Dynamic Phenomena.” Nature 458 (7242): 1145–1149.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Anderson, Kristina, Christoph Lutz, Frederik W. van Delft, Caroline M. Bateman, Yanping Guo, Susan M. Colman, Helena Kempski, et al. 2011. “Genetic Variegation of Clonal Architecture and Propagating Cells in Leukaemia.” Nature 469 (7330): 356–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hirsch, Frederick, John Kemp, and Jani Ilkka. 2006. Mobile Web Services. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gershon, Eli. 2013. Advanced Topics in Control and Estimation of State-Multiplicative Noisy Systems. Edited by Uri Shaked. Vol. 439. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Weide, T. L., F. Dignum, J-J Ch Meyer, H. Prakken, and G. A. W. Vreeswijk. 2011. “Arguing about Preferences and Decisions.” In Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems: 7th International Workshop, ArgMAS 2010 Toronto, ON, Canada, May 10, 2010 Revised, Selected and Invited Papers, edited by Peter McBurney, Iyad Rahwan, and Simon Parsons, 68–85. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Record Sea Turtle Migration Highlights Need For Expanded Reserves.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Acid Rain: Federal Research Into Effects on Waters and Forests. RCED-86-7. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bardhoshi, Gerta. 2012. “The Relationship Between Assignment of Non-Counseling Duties and Burnout Among Professional School Counselors.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “The Caged Beast Awakens.” New York Times, April 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spurgeon 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Mellman 2007; Sage 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bernstein and Rossant 2013)
  • Three authors: (Goda, Tsia, and Jalali 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mao et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of International Trade & Economic Development
AbbreviationJ. Int. Trade Econ. Dev.
ISSN (print)0963-8199
ISSN (online)1469-9559
ScopeAerospace Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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