How to format your references using the The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery (JFAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin TE. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds. Science 349(6251): 966–70, 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
Volz J, Rauschenbeutel A. Applied physics. Triggering an optical transistor with one photon. Science 341(6147): 725–6, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons JR, Lewis RS, Clayton RN. Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science 324(5934): 1516;author reply 1516, 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Russo C, Schettini G, Saido TC, Hulette C, Lippa C, Lannfelt L, Ghetti B, Gambetti P, Tabaton M, Teller JK. Presenilin-1 mutations in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 405(6786): 531–2, 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kroupa VF. Phase Lock Loops and Frequency Synthesis. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Visgilio GR, Whitelaw DM (eds.). Acid in the Environment: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Costa SO, Nedjah N, de Macedo Mourelle L. Automatic Modeling of Fuzzy Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization. In:Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 10th International Conference, ICAISC 2010, Zakopane, Poland, June 13-17, 2010, Part I, pp. 35–42, edited by Rutkowski L, Scherer R, Tadeusiewicz R, Zadeh LA, Zurada JM. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Women Suffer The Myths Of The Hymen And The Virginity Test [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2014Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Europe. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayorga J. MSW students’ perception of mental health competence [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA], California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hyduk J. Looking to Take a City Where Grubb and Speed Never Did. New York Times. B10, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (4,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-2516
ISSN (online)1542-2224
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles