How to format your references using the The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery (JFAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisman R. Health care policy. Straining emergency rooms by expanding health insurance. Science 343(6168): 252–3, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirzhner T, Koren G. Pairing and the phase diagram of the normal coherence length ξN(T, x) above Tc of La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 thin films probed by the Josephson effect. Sci Rep 4: 6244, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mavrodiev P, Tessone CJ, Schweitzer F. Quantifying the effects of social influence. Sci Rep 3: 1360, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scheschkewitz D, Amii H, Gornitzka H, Schoeller WW, Bourissou D, Bertrand G. Singlet diradicals: from transition states to crystalline compounds. Science 295(5561): 1880–1, 2002.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eric G. F, Yvonne R. Growing Pains. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
Gao C (ed.). Polymeric Biomaterials for Tissue Regeneration: From Surface/Interface Design to 3D Constructs. Singapore, Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Borland H. Definitions, Theories, Drivers and Managerial Implications: Grounding Global Strategic Sustainability. In:Proceedings of the 2009 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, pp. 4–4, edited by Robinson L Jr. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. AI Can Now “Draw” Humans - And It’s Absolutely Horrifying [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2017Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: Progress Continues, but Challenges Remain on Department’s Management of Information Technology. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon JT. Classification of Mechanical and Electrical Response of High Performance Fiber Reinforced-Geopolymer Composites (HPFR-GPC) [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA], University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein J. Asked to Reduce Prison Rape, Then Accused of Sexual Abuse. New York Times. A22, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,4).
This sentence cites four references (2,4,6,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-2516
ISSN (online)1542-2224
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles