How to format your references using the The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery (JFAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen J. High-temperature superconductivity: electron mirages in an iron salt. Nature 515(7526): 205–6, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Körner C, Basler D. Plant science. Phenology under global warming. Science 327(5972): 1461–2, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fraser C, Hanage WP, Spratt BG. Recombination and the nature of bacterial speciation. Science 315(5811): 476–80, 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang Z-C, Tang C-H, Zhang Y, Gong H, Li X, Wang J. Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application. Sci Rep 3: 2925, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loughran M. Auditing for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Ryan M (ed.). Reflections on Learning, Life and Work: Completing Doctoral Studies in Mid and Later Life and Career. Rotterdam, SensePublishers, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bensaid H, Caferra R, Peltier N. I-Terms in Ordered Resolution and Superposition Calculi: Retrieving Lost Completeness. In:Intelligent Computer Mathematics: 10th International Conference, AISC 2010, 17th Symposium, Calculemus 2010, and 9th International Conference, MKM 2010, Paris, France, July 5-10, 2010. Proceedings, pp. 19–33, edited by Autexier S, Calmet J, Delahaye D, Ion PDF, Rideau L, Rioboo R, Sexton AP. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Real Reason The EpiPen And Other Off-Patents Are So Expensive [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2016Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvement of Certain Management Areas. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spencer KH. Exploring the impact of problem -focused case writing pedagogy on novice teachers’ beliefs and practices concerning effective instructional intervention for young children and families [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC], George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: In His Own Words; On TV, a Very Public Education for Ross Perot. New York Times. A18, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (2,2).
This sentence cites four references (2,2,2,2).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-2516
ISSN (online)1542-2224
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles