How to format your references using the The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery (JFAS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner K. Crunch time for New Jersey lab. Nature 440(7088): 1111, 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaudhari K, Pradeep T. Spatiotemporal mapping of three dimensional rotational dynamics of single ultrasmall gold nanorods. Sci Rep 4: 5948, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo ZX, Crompton AW, Sun AL. A new mammaliaform from the early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science 292(5521): 1535–40, 2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gregg PM, Lin J, Behn MD, Montési LGJ. Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults. Nature 448(7150): 183–7, 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin W. International Construction Contracts. Oxford, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Nardi AE, Freire RCR (eds.). Panic Disorder: Neurobiological and Treatment Aspects. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Germanakos P, Belk M. A Generic Human-Centred Personalization Framework: The Case of mapU. In:Human-Centred Web Adaptation and Personalization: From Theory to Practice, pp. 137–82, edited by Belk M. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Trials A Step Forward For Medicinal Cannabis But What Comes Next? [Internet]. IFLScience. , 2015Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: FHWA Has Acted to Disclose the Limitations of Its Environmental Review Analysis. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Randall SL. Psychologists’ use of, familiarity, and comfort with Alcoholics Anonymous Slogans in psychotherapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA], Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. The Region, a Primer. New York Times. A9, 2004.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (2).
This sentence cites two references (3,4).
This sentence cites four references (3,5,7,8).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Foot & Ankle Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Foot Ankle Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-2516
ISSN (online)1542-2224
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles