How to format your references using the The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dissanayake C. Global Voices of Science. Of stones and health: medical geology in Sri Lanka. Science. 2005;309(5736):883-885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunn RA, Martinez F. Contrasting crustal production and rapid mantle transitions beneath back-arc ridges. Nature. 2011;469(7329):198-202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killian NJ, Jutras MJ, Buffalo EA. A map of visual space in the primate entorhinal cortex. Nature. 2012;491(7426):761-764.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu M-X, Cao S-S, Du Y-Z, Liu Z-X, Liu P, Li J. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sci Rep. 2013;3:3211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell D. Building Contract Claims. Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Gosling P. Mastering Your PhD: Survival and Success in the Doctoral Years and Beyond. 2nd ed. (Noordam LD, ed.). Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bermejo E, Martínez-Frías ML. Prevention, Diagnosis and Services. In: Posada de la Paz M, Groft SC, eds. Rare Diseases Epidemiology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands; 2010:55-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Re-Examination Of Old Notebooks Reveals Powerful Mathematics. IFLScience. Published October 19, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Prekindergarten: Four Selected States Expanded Access by Relying on Schools and Existing Providers of Early Education and Care to Provide Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratovac S. Developmental alterations in inhibitory neurotransmission in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse basolateral amygdala. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K. Making My Own Music. New York Times. October 12, 2002:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0021-9355
ISSN (online)1535-1386
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles