How to format your references using the The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. India budgets for boost in research. Nature. 2003;422(6927):6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walck J, Dixon K. Time to future-proof plants in storage. Nature. 2009;462(7274):721.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu Z-X, Lan H, Ji W. Role of the dispersion force in modeling the interfacial properties of molecule-metal interfaces: adsorption of thiophene on copper surfaces. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5036.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang W, Thomas B, Flynn RA, et al. Retraction Note: DDX5 and its associated lncRNA Rmrp modulate TH17 cell effector functions. Nature. 2018;562(7725):150.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held G. Bulletproofing TCP/IP-Based Windows NT/2000 Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
von Eckardstein A, Kardassis D, eds. High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation. Vol 224. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Shivanna KR, Tandon R. Pollen Biology. In: Tandon R, ed. Reproductive Ecology of Flowering Plants: A Manual. Springer India; 2014:35-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Can ‘Cured’ Ebola Patients Fall Sick Again Months After Recovery? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitehead CF. Teacher perceptions of the effects of parentification on social interactions in the school setting. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Real City Bird: Cathedral’s Peacock Is Treated for Malaise. New York Times. February 10, 2002:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0021-9355
ISSN (online)1535-1386
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles