How to format your references using the The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haidt J. The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science. 2007;316(5827):998-1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finke DL, Denno RF. Predator diversity dampens trophic cascades. Nature. 2004;429(6990):407-410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsakmakidis KL, Boardman AD, Hess O. “Trapped rainbow” storage of light in metamaterials. Nature. 2007;450(7168):397-401.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Higgins BL, Berry DW, Bartlett SD, Wiseman HM, Pryde GJ. Entanglement-free Heisenberg-limited phase estimation. Nature. 2007;450(7168):393-396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cleaver H, Cawson P, Gorin S, Walker S. Safeguarding Children. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; 2009.
An edited book
Jin D, Lin S, eds. Advances in Computer Science, Intelligent System and Environment. Vol 104. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Altman BM, Rasch EK. Purpose of an International Comparable Census Disability Measure. In: Altman BM, ed. International Measurement of Disability: Purpose, Method and Application. Social Indicators Research Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:55-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Chance Events Make Altruism Inevitable. IFLScience. Published July 22, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Action Needs to Realize Benefits of Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitchell JE. Job satisfaction and burnout among foreign -trained nurses in Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Stepping Alone, Together. New York Times. September 20, 2015:AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Bone Joint Surg. Am.
ISSN (print)0021-9355
ISSN (online)1535-1386
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles