How to format your references using the The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bonesteel, N. 2000. “Composite Fermions Pair Up.” Nature 406 (6798): 840–841.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sazanov, Leonid A., and Philip Hinchliffe. 2006. “Structure of the Hydrophilic Domain of Respiratory Complex I from Thermus Thermophilus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5766): 1430–1436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann, David L., Roland W. Sutter, and R. Bruce Aylward. 2005. “A Global Call for New Polio Vaccines.” Nature 434 (7034): 699–700.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Chenli, Xiongfei Fu, Lizhong Liu, Xiaojing Ren, Carlos K. L. Chau, Sihong Li, Lu Xiang, et al. 2011. “Sequential Establishment of Stripe Patterns in an Expanding Cell Population.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6053): 238–241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Price, John. 2010. The Conscious Investor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kumar, Shailendra. 2011. Concrete Fracture Models and Applications. Edited by Sudhirkumar V. Barai. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Perello, Mario, and Jesica Raingo. 2014. “Central Ghrelin Receptors and Food Intake.” In Central Functions of the Ghrelin Receptor, edited by Jeanelle Portelli and Ilse Smolders, 65–88. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Why Drinking Wine Is Like Drinking Koala Pee.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Transportation Infrastructure: Issues for Congressional Consideration During Reauthorization of Surface Transportation Programs. T-RCED-91-56. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanford, Rachealle. 2015. “Framing Human Trafficking: A Content Analysis of Newspaper Articles from 2012 and 2013.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Cosby Can Laugh Now, but Football Was Serious Business.” New York Times, December 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodes 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Heeney 2015; Singh Chawla 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sazanov and Hinchliffe 2006)
  • Three authors: (Heymann, Sutter, and Aylward 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering
ISSN (print)1937-3260
ISSN (online)1937-3279
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering

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