How to format your references using the The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shen, Helen. 2014. “Interactive Notebooks: Sharing the Code.” Nature 515 (7525): 151–152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurtz, Joachim, and Karoline Franz. 2003. “Innate Defence: Evidence for Memory in Invertebrate Immunity.” Nature 425 (6953): 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheianov, Vadim V., Vladimir Fal’ko, and B. L. Altshuler. 2007. “The Focusing of Electron Flow and a Veselago Lens in Graphene P-n Junctions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5816): 1252–1255.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Carrelha, Joana, Yiran Meng, Laura M. Kettyle, Tiago C. Luis, Ruggiero Norfo, Verónica Alcolea, Hanane Boukarabila, et al. 2018. “Hierarchically Related Lineage-Restricted Fates of Multipotent Haematopoietic Stem Cells.” Nature 554 (7690): 106–111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sericola, Bruno. 2013. Markov Chains. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Uyar, A. Sima, Ender Ozcan, and Neil Urquhart, eds. 2013. Automated Scheduling and Planning: From Theory to Practice. Vol. 505. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben Messaoud, Mohamed Anouar, Aïcha Bouzid, and Noureddine Ellouze. 2013. “An Efficient Method for Fundamental Frequency Determination of Noisy Speech.” In Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: 6th International Conference, NOLISP 2013, Mons, Belgium, June 19-21, 2013. Proceedings, edited by Thomas Drugman and Thierry Dutoit, 33–41. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Patient’s Fart Causes Fire During Surgery.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Supercomputing in Industry. T-IMTEC-91-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haghighat, Reza. 2015. “An Optimization Model to Allocate Budget in School Rehabilitation Projects.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2016. “At Storm King, Fields of Stars, Rulers and Pipes.” New York Times, June 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Shen 2014; Kurtz and Franz 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kurtz and Franz 2003)
  • Three authors: (Cheianov, Fal’ko, and Altshuler 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Carrelha et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering
ISSN (print)1937-3260
ISSN (online)1937-3279
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering

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