How to format your references using the The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, Virginia. 2003. “Biosphere Owner Sues Sponsor.” Nature 422 (6931): 461.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, Jeff, and Monica Bradford. 2007. “2007 Visualization Challenge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5846): 1857.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bluestone, Jeffrey A., Kevan Herold, and George Eisenbarth. 2010. “Genetics, Pathogenesis and Clinical Interventions in Type 1 Diabetes.” Nature 464 (7293): 1293–1300.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Couder, Y., S. Protière, E. Fort, and A. Boudaoud. 2005. “Dynamical Phenomena: Walking and Orbiting Droplets.” Nature 437 (7056): 208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harrington, Peter J. 2010. Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry for Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fiore, Sandro, and Giovanni Aloisio, eds. 2011. Grid and Cloud Database Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Collier, John. 2010. “A Dynamical Approach to Identity and Diversity in Complex Systems.” In Complexity, Difference and Identity: An Ethical Perspective, edited by Paul Cilliers and Rika Preiser, 79–93. Issues in Business Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Carbon Nanotubes Can Act As ‘Bridges’ Between Living Neurons.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Budget Authority Rescission Proposals. OGC-82-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chirwa, Kabelo Ufulu. 2017. “Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2017. “With Dutch Vote, E.U. Free-Trade Deal With Ukraine Nears Final Approval.” New York Times, May 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2003; Nesbit and Bradford 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit and Bradford 2007)
  • Three authors: (Bluestone, Herold, and Eisenbarth 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Couder et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering
ISSN (print)1937-3260
ISSN (online)1937-3279
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Mechanical Engineering

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