How to format your references using the The Bone & Joint Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Bone & Joint Journal (BJJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. The global challenge. Nature 2007;447(7142):348–349.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adams WW, Baughman RH. Retrospective: Richard E. Smalley (1943-2005). Science 2005;310(5756):1916.
A journal article with 3 authors
McQuibban GA, Saurya S, Freeman M. Mitochondrial membrane remodelling regulated by a conserved rhomboid protease. Nature 2003;423(6939):537–541.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gu C, Yoshida Y, Livet J, Reimert DV, Mann F, Merte J, et al. Semaphorin 3E and plexin-D1 control vascular pattern independently of neuropilins. Science 2005;307(5707):265–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin CJ. The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Caldwell S. Using Your Emotional Intelligence to Develop Others. Gravett L, ed. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
ElMaraghy HA. Reconfigurable Process Plans For Responsive Manufacturing Systems. In: Cunha PF, Maropoulos PG, eds. Digital Enterprise Technology: Perspectives and Future Challenges. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2007:35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Bone & Joint Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Tooth Enamel Provides Clues On Tsetse Flies And The Spread Of Herding In Ancient Africa. IFLScience. : IFLScience, (date last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Raised by Proposal to Replace the Airline Ticket Tax. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996 Dec. Report No.: RCED-97-23.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crossman DC. The impact of safety culture on worker motivation and the economic bottom line [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McGOVERN G. George McGovern on Op-Ed. New York Times 2012;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Bone & Joint Journal
AbbreviationBone Joint J.
ISSN (print)2049-4394
ISSN (online)2049-4408
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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