How to format your references using the The Bone & Joint Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Bone & Joint Journal (BJJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray A. Plant genetics: RNA cache or genome trash? Nature 2005;437(7055):E1-2; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knust E, Bossinger O. Composition and formation of intercellular junctions in epithelial cells. Science 2002;298(5600):1955–1959.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vergoz V, Schreurs HA, Mercer AR. Queen pheromone blocks aversive learning in young worker bees. Science 2007;317(5836):384–386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baek S-Y, Kaneda F, Ozawa M, Edamatsu K. Experimental violation and reformulation of the Heisenberg’s error-disturbance uncertainty relation. Sci Rep 2013;3:2221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker C, Fincham B. Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
Miesenberger K, Fels D, Archambault D, Peňáz P, Zagler W, eds. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao W, Zhou H, Zhou Z, Fu Z. An Approach for High Resolution Radar Target Recognition Based on BP Neural Network. In: Huang D-S, Gan Y, Bevilacqua V, Figueroa JC, eds. Advanced Intelligent Computing: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012:33–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Bone & Joint Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Seven New Genes Linked To Anxiety Disorders. IFLScience. : IFLScience, (date last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: System Management Capabilities Improved, but More Can Be Done to Institutionalize Improvements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004 Aug. Report No.: GAO-04-901.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skinner R. Artistiya: Popular music and personhood in postcolonial Bamako, Mali [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. A New Press Secretary, for a President at War With the Press. New York Times 2017;A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Bone & Joint Journal
AbbreviationBone Joint J.
ISSN (print)2049-4394
ISSN (online)2049-4408
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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