How to format your references using the The Bone & Joint Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Bone & Joint Journal (BJJ). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hecke M van. Materials science. Shape matters. Science 2007;317(5834):49–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Narayan ARH, Sherman DH. Chemistry. Re-engineering nature’s catalysts. Science 2013;339(6117):283–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hilgenkamp H, Moshchalkov VV, Kes P. Physics. Flux quanta on the move. Science 2003;302(5648):1159–1160.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xia X, Chen W, Li J, Chen X, Rui R, Liu C, et al. Body mass index and risk of breast cancer: a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Sci Rep 2014;4:7480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair R. Organic Production and Food Quality. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
Bartezzaghi E, Cagliano R, Caniato F, Ronchi S, eds. A Journey through Manufacturing and Supply Chain Strategy Research: A Tribute to Professor Gianluca Spina. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fazio N, Nicolosi AR, Perera IM. Broadcast Steganography. In: Benaloh J, ed. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2014: The Cryptographer’s Track at the RSA Conference 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 25-28, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014:64–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Bone & Joint Journal.

Blog post
Andrews R. Measles Has Been Officially Wiped Out Across The Americas. IFLScience. : IFLScience, (date last accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: DOD’s Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997 Apr. Report No.: RCED-97-122.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster RL. The Perceptions of Language Minority Parents Regarding Informed Consent in the Special Education Process [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Acting on Broadway, Sleeping on His Couch. New York Times 2017;MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Bone & Joint Journal
AbbreviationBone Joint J.
ISSN (print)2049-4394
ISSN (online)2049-4408
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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