How to format your references using the Technological Forecasting & Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technological Forecasting & Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nosengo, N., 2003. The quota conundrum. Nature 426, 211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Foustoukos, D.I., Seyfried, W.E., Jr, 2004. Hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vent fluids: the role of chromium-bearing catalysts. Science 304, 1002–1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, W.-Y., Giraldez, A.J., Schier, A.F., 2007. Target protectors reveal dampening and balancing of Nodal agonist and antagonist by miR-430. Science 318, 271–274.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saint-Ruf, C., Panigada, M., Azogui, O., Debey, P., von Boehmer, H., Grassi, F., 2000. Different initiation of pre-TCR and gammadeltaTCR signalling. Nature 406, 524–527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens, H., 2012. Building Physics: Heat, Air and Moisture. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Scott, J., 2015. Expert Oracle Application Express. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lees, A.W., 2015. Recent Advances and Prospects in Condition Monitoring, in: Sinha, J.K. (Ed.), Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery: Proceedings of VETOMAC X 2014, Held at the University of Manchester, UK, September 9-11, 2014, Mechanisms and Machine Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technological Forecasting & Social Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Plasmonics: Revolutionizing Light-Based Technologies Via Electron Oscillations In Metals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Aviation Weather: FAA Needs to Resolve Questions Involving the Use of New Radars (No. RCED-90-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jahan, M., 2015. A policy to protect hoarders: An analysis of Fair Housing Amendments Act, 1988 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Ed Sheeran Holds No. 1 as Drake Inches Up. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nosengo, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Foustoukos and Seyfried, 2004; Nosengo, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Foustoukos and Seyfried, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Saint-Ruf et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnological Forecasting & Social Change
AbbreviationTechnol. Forecast. Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0040-1625
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Applied Psychology

Other styles