How to format your references using the Technological Forecasting & Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technological Forecasting & Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayor, S., 2005. Coming home. Nature 436, 488–489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Folkman, J., Kalluri, R., 2004. Cancer without disease. Nature 427, 787.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulligan, C.J., Kitchen, A., Miyamoto, M.M., 2006. Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals.” Science 314, 1390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wilman, R.J., Gerssen, J., Bower, R.G., Morris, S.L., Bacon, R., de Zeeuw, P.T., Davies, R.L., 2005. The discovery of a galaxy-wide superwind from a young massive galaxy at redshift z approximately 3. Nature 436, 227–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBee, J., 2009. Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
Spink, A., Cole, C. (Eds.), 2005. New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval, The Information Retrieval Series. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Trindade, L.A., Wang, H., Blackburn, W., Rooney, N., 2013. An Enhanced Semantic Tree Kernel for Sentiment Polarity Classification, in: Gelbukh, A. (Ed.), Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 14th International Conference, CICLing 2013, Samos, Greece, March 24-30, 2013, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 50–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technological Forecasting & Social Change.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Search For The Origins Of Alzheimer’s In Space [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Motor Carrier Academy (No. RCED-95-43R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B., 2015. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1995. The Storefront Psychic: A Peek Inside. New York Times 131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mayor, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Folkman and Kalluri, 2004; Mayor, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Folkman and Kalluri, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wilman et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnological Forecasting & Social Change
AbbreviationTechnol. Forecast. Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0040-1625
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Applied Psychology

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