How to format your references using the Technological Forecasting & Social Change citation style
This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technological Forecasting & Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.
Using reference management software
Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:
The citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
The style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.
Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.
Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.
A journal article with 1 author
Nosengo, N., 2003. The quota conundrum. Nature 426, 211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Foustoukos, D.I., Seyfried, W.E., Jr, 2004. Hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vent fluids: the role of chromium-bearing catalysts. Science 304, 1002–1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, W.-Y., Giraldez, A.J., Schier, A.F., 2007. Target protectors reveal dampening and balancing of Nodal agonist and antagonist by miR-430. Science 318, 271–274.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saint-Ruf, C., Panigada, M., Azogui, O., Debey, P., von Boehmer, H., Grassi, F., 2000. Different initiation of pre-TCR and gammadeltaTCR signalling. Nature 406, 524–527.
Books and book chapters
Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.
An authored book
Hens, H., 2012. Building Physics: Heat, Air and Moisture. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Scott, J., 2015. Expert Oracle Application Express. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lees, A.W., 2015. Recent Advances and Prospects in Condition Monitoring, in: Sinha, J.K. (Ed.), Vibration Engineering and Technology of Machinery: Proceedings of VETOMAC X 2014, Held at the University of Manchester, UK, September 9-11, 2014, Mechanisms and Machine Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–63.
Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technological Forecasting & Social Change.
This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Aviation Weather: FAA Needs to Resolve Questions Involving the Use of New Radars (No. RCED-90-17). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Theses and dissertations
Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.
Jahan, M., 2015. A policy to protect hoarders: An analysis of Fair Housing Amendments Act, 1988 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.
News paper articles
Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Ed Sheeran Holds No. 1 as Drake Inches Up. New York Times C3.
References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:
This sentence cites one reference (Nosengo, 2003). This sentence cites two references (Foustoukos and Seyfried, 2004; Nosengo, 2003).
Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:
Two authors: (Foustoukos and Seyfried, 2004)
Three or more authors: (Saint-Ruf et al., 2000)
About the journal
Full journal title
Technological Forecasting & Social Change
Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change
Business and International Management Management of Technology and Innovation Applied Psychology