How to format your references using the Technological Forecasting & Social Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technological Forecasting & Social Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trenberth, K.E., 2002. Changes in tropical clouds and radiation. Science 296, 2095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tissenbaum, H.A., Guarente, L., 2001. Increased dosage of a sir-2 gene extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 410, 227–230.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng, L., Hong, W., Hao, Z.-C., 2014. Generation of electromagnetic waves with arbitrary orbital angular momentum modes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4814.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stephan, K.E., Marshall, J.C., Friston, K.J., Rowe, J.B., Ritzl, A., Zilles, K., Fink, G.R., 2003. Lateralized cognitive processes and lateralized task control in the human brain. Science 301, 384–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Papadimitriou, G.I., Tsimoulas, P.A., Obaidat, M.S., Pomportsis, A.S., 2005. Multiwavelength Optical LANs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Eckert, C., Katsikas, S.K., Pernul, G. (Eds.), 2014. Trust, Privacy, and Security in Digital Business: 11th International Conference, TrustBus 2014, Munich, Germany, September 2-3, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
El Rayes, T., Catena, R., Rafii, S., Altorki, N., Mittal, V., 2015. Inflammation and Lung Cancer: The Link to Angiogenesis, in: Dubinett, S.M. (Ed.), Inflammation and Lung Cancer. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 137–159.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technological Forecasting & Social Change.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Centuries-Old Skeletons Reveal How Dissection Tools Improved [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. FEA Procurement of Automatic Data Processing Services (No. B-178205.52). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, J.A., 2011. Demobilizing the Minors: Examining Compliance with International Child Soldiering Laws (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M., Rosenberg, E., 2016. ­Recreation and Commerce Collide on City’s Crowded Waterways. New York Times A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trenberth, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Tissenbaum and Guarente, 2001; Trenberth, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tissenbaum and Guarente, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Stephan et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnological Forecasting & Social Change
AbbreviationTechnol. Forecast. Soc. Change
ISSN (print)0040-1625
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Management of Technology and Innovation
Applied Psychology

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