How to format your references using the Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaeta AL. Optics. Collapsing light really shines. Science 2003;301:54–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ungar PS, Sponheimer M. The diets of early hominins. Science 2011;334:190–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bortnik J, Thorne RM, Meredith NP. The unexpected origin of plasmaspheric hiss from discrete chorus emissions. Nature 2008;452:62–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Warne T, Serrano-Vega MJ, Baker JG, Moukhametzianov R, Edwards PC, Henderson R, et al. Structure of a beta1-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature 2008;454:486–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hetherington S. How to Know. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Fumagalli E. Service Quality Regulation in Electricity Distribution and Retail. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Halder C, Obaidullah SM, Paul J, Roy K. Writer Verification on Bangla Handwritten Characters. In: Chaki R, Cortesi A, Saeed K, Chaki N, editors. Advanced Computing and Systems for Security: Volume 2, New Delhi: Springer India; 2016, p. 53–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J. Siberian Jays Know Who Their Family Are, Even If They’re Only Distantly Related. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Ed-Flex Program: Increase in Flexibility Useful but Limited by Scope of Waiver Authority. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang J. Understanding the college experiences of Cambodian American students. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Dominant So Far on Clay, Nadal Hits A Bump on the Road to Roland Garros. New York Times 2017:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology
ISSN (print)2405-6324

Other styles