How to format your references using the Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evans P. Biochemistry. Resolving some old problems in protein crystallography. Science 2012;336:986–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feinberg EH, Meister M. Orientation columns in the mouse superior colliculus. Nature 2015;519:229–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marsh AG, Maxson RE Jr, Manahan DT. High macromolecular synthesis with low metabolic cost in Antarctic sea urchin embryos. Science 2001;291:1950–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yin Y, Rioux RM, Erdonmez CK, Hughes S, Somorjai GA, Alivisatos AP. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. Science 2004;304:711–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen S. Cancer Diagnostics with DNA Microarrays. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Chun HJ, Yang S-K, Choi M-G, editors. Clinical Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: A Comprehensive Atlas. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Rydin H, Gunnarsson U, Sundberg S. The Role of Sphagnum in Peatland Development and Persistence. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH, editors. Boreal Peatland Ecosystems, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 47–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Beer Compound Could Protect Brain Cells From Damage. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Borrower Interest Rates Cannot Be Set in Advance to Precisely and Consistently Balance Federal Revenues and Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
To KS. Loss of Promoter Methylation is Correlated with mRNA Induction of Senescence Upregulated Gene UGT78D1. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski S. Where College Ratings Hits the Wall. New York Times 2014:BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnical Innovations & Patient Support in Radiation Oncology
ISSN (print)2405-6324

Other styles