How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorp H H 2000 CHEMISTRY: Harnessing the Power of Diatomics Science 289 882–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Stott P A and Thorne P W 2010 How best to log local temperatures? Nature 465 158–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Cubrović M, Zaanen J and Schalm K 2009 String theory, quantum phase transitions, and the emergent Fermi liquid Science 325 439–44
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Fuchs S, Rende E, Crisanti A and Nolan T 2014 Disruption of aminergic signalling reveals novel compounds with distinct inhibitory effects on mosquito reproduction, locomotor function and survival Sci. Rep. 4 5526

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes P and Davies M 2009 Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell)
An edited book
White C 2009 The Materiality of Individuality: Archaeological Studies of Individual Lives (New York, NY: Springer US)
A chapter in an edited book
Axelsson E, Claessen K and Sheeran M 2005 Wired: Wire-Aware Circuit Design Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed D Borrione and W Paul (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 5–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Evans K 2017 Global Warming Could Smash Paris Agreement Target Of 1.5°C In Just 9 Years IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1979 Opportunities for Improving Program Planning for Photovoltaic Research and Development (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blandin N M 2008 Re-conceptualizing leadership for an era of complexity and uncertainty: A case study of leadership in a complex adaptive system Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L 2014 Saying ‘Yes’ Before a Studio Audience New York Times ST18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

Other styles