How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson K 2006 Personal finance. Making the most of a good thing Science 313 1456–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevenson I R and Bryant D M 2000 Climate change and constraints on breeding Nature 406 366–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Joliveau E, Smith J and Wolfe J 2004 Acoustics: tuning of vocal tract resonance by sopranos Nature 427 116
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pfau T, Spence A, Starke S, Ferrari M and Wilson A 2009 Modern riding style improves horse racing times Science 325 289

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gamenara D, Seoane G A, Saenz-Méndez P and de María P D 2012 Redox Biocatalysis (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Stanton P K, Bramham C and Scharfman H E 2005 Synaptic Plasticity and Transsynaptic Signaling (Boston, MA: Springer US)
A chapter in an edited book
Leung C K-S and MacKinnon R K 2015 Balancing Tree Size and Accuracy in Fast Mining of Uncertain Frequent Patterns Big Data Analytics and Knowledge Discovery: 17th International Conference, DaWaK 2015, Valencia, Spain, September 1-4, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed S Madria and T Hara (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 57–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Human Spaceflight Launches Will Return to the United States IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2002 Federal-Aid Highways: States Need Guidance on Sales or Leases of Real Property Purchased with Federal Funds (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boukes J 2012 An exploration of online spam prevention through geolocational filters Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J 2017 For Trump, Everything Is a Rating New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

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