How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M 2014 Molecular biology: Remove, reuse, recycle Nature 514 S2-4
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruokolainen K and Tuomisto H 2002 Beta-diversity in tropical forests Science 297 1439; discussion 1439
A journal article with 3 authors
Park S T, Kim S K and Kim M S 2002 Observation of conformation-specific pathways in the photodissociation of 1-iodopropane ions Nature 415 306–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Stayrook S, Jaru-Ampornpan P, Ni J, Hochschild A and Lewis M 2008 Crystal structure of the lambda repressor and a model for pairwise cooperative operator binding Nature 452 1022–5

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kumacheva E and Garstecki P 2011 Microfluidic Reactors for Polymer Particles (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Hazewinkel M, Gubareni N and Kirichenko V V 2007 Algebras, Rings and Modules vol 586 (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands)
A chapter in an edited book
Oquendo F, Leite J and Batista T 2016 Specifying Behavior of Software Architectures Software Architecture in Action: Designing and Executing Architectural Models with SysADL Grounded on the OMG SysML Standard Undergraduate Topics in Computer Science ed J Leite and T Batista (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 65–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Taub B 2016 Scientists Kick-Start Brain Of Comatose Patient Using Ultrasound IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Guaranteed Student Loans: Eliminating Interest Rate Floors Could Generate Substantial Savings (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warwick-Smith K M 2017 Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology Doctoral dissertation (Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belo J 2017 The Sanitation Worker’s Plight New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

Other styles