How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stock J M 2006 Geochemistry. The Hawaiian-Emperor bend: older than expected Science 313 1250–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Rader D J and Daugherty A 2008 Translating molecular discoveries into new therapies for atherosclerosis Nature 451 904–13
A journal article with 3 authors
Tyler R H, Maus S and Lühr H 2003 Satellite observations of magnetic fields due to ocean tidal flow Science 299 239–41
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Arnold P L, Patel D, Wilson C and Love J B 2008 Reduction and selective oxo group silylation of the uranyl dication Nature 451 315–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hwang R-B R 2012 Periodic Structures (Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd)
An edited book
Munné A, Ginebreda A and Prat N 2016 Experiences from Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part I) vol 42 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Angermann L, Shestopalov Y V and Yatsyk V V 2015 Eigenmodes of Linearised Problems of Scattering and Generation of Oscillations on Cubically Polarisable Layers Inverse Problems and Applications Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics ed L Beilina (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 67–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Carpineti A 2017 Neil deGrasse Tyson Says He’ll Only Go To Mars If Elon Musk Sends His Mom First IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012 Spectrum Management: FCC’s Licensing Approach in the 11, 18, and 23 Gigahertz Bands Currently Supports Spectrum Availability and Efficiency (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman K M 2015 Parent involvement in the promotion of healthy outcomes for young girls: A grant writing project Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Williams J 2017 Where Everybody Knows Your Name (and Dad’s) New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

Other styles