How to format your references using the Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leung J 2012 Plant science. Controlling hormone action by subversion and deception Science 335 46–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Cywes C and Wessels M R 2001 Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling Nature 414 648–52
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakada D, Saunders T L and Morrison S J 2010 Lkb1 regulates cell cycle and energy metabolism in haematopoietic stem cells Nature 468 653–8
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nakahata Y, Sahar S, Astarita G, Kaluzova M and Sassone-Corsi P 2009 Circadian control of the NAD+ salvage pathway by CLOCK-SIRT1 Science 324 654–7

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ravindran K 2014 The Mathematics of Financial Models (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Santos N C, Pasquini L, Correia A C M and Romaniello M 2008 Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference held in Aveiro, Portugal, 11–15 September 2006 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Klein N, Hurwitz I and Durvasula R 2013 Chagas Disease: Global Epidemiology and Evolving Methods for Control Dynamic Models of Infectious Diseases: Volume 1: Vector-Borne Diseases ed V S H Rao and R Durvasula (New York, NY: Springer) pp 139–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 First Atomic Bomb Test May Mark The Beginning Of The Anthropocene IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1979 GAO’s Need for an Interim Management Data System (MDS) (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mace J Y 2014 Rupturing the “reality” of reality TV: Contemporary video artists examining the discursive effects of the reality TV phenomenon Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L 2008 Top Court Allows Suit Over 401(k) New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Topography: Metrology and Properties
AbbreviationSurf. Topogr.
ISSN (online)2051-672X

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