How to format your references using the Surface & Coatings Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface & Coatings Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Merilä, Evolutionary biology: Perplexing effects of phenotypic plasticity, Nature. 525 (2015) 326–327.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. Flanagan, R.S. Johansson, Action plans used in action observation, Nature. 424 (2003) 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Alboussière, R. Deguen, M. Melzani, Melting-induced stratification above the Earth’s inner core due to convective translation, Nature. 466 (2010) 744–747.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.C. Barford, S.C. Wofsy, M.L. Goulden, J.W. Munger, E.H. Pyle, S.P. Urbanski, L. Hutyra, S.R. Saleska, D. Fitzjarrald, K. Moore, Factors controlling long- and short-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in a mid-latitude forest, Science. 294 (2001) 1688–1691.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Cotarca, H. Eckert, Phosgenations - A Handbook, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
A.M. Davies, M. Sundaram, S.L.J. James, eds., Imaging of Bone Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions: Techniques and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Katz, M. Pita, Biomedical Applications of Magnetic Particles, in: E. Matijević (Ed.), Fine Particles in Medicine and Pharmacy, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2012: pp. 147–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface & Coatings Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Greedy Galaxy is Getting Bigger, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: GSA Has Accumulated Adequate Funding for Transition to New Contracts but Needs Cost Estimation Policy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Doss, Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, McCartney Sues to Get Back His Songs, New York Times. (2017) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface & Coatings Technology
AbbreviationSurf. Coat. Technol.
ISSN (print)0257-8972
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles