How to format your references using the Surface & Coatings Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface & Coatings Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Alberts, Editor’s Note, Science. (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Wookey, G. Helffrich, Inner-core shear-wave anisotropy and texture from an observation of PKJKP waves, Nature. 454 (2008) 873–876.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Krupic, N. Burgess, J. O’Keefe, Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands, Science. 337 (2012) 853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z.-Y. Wu, C. Li, H.-W. Liang, Y.-N. Zhang, X. Wang, J.-F. Chen, S.-H. Yu, Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Scheringer, Persistence and Spatial Range of Environmental Chemicals, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2002.
An edited book
W. Puhl, K.-P. Günther, P. Dieppe, K.E. Dreinhöfer, eds., EUROHIP: Health Technology Assessment of Hip Arthroplasty in Europe, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
C.Y.-Y. Lin, L. Edvinsson, National Intellectual Capital of Four Larger Western European Countries (France, Germany, Ireland, UK), in: L. Edvinsson (Ed.), National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface & Coatings Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Tiny Bird Tricks And Scares Predators By ‘Crying Hawk,’ IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to More Effectively Implement Major Initiatives to Save Billions of Dollars, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.S. Zinda, American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Ewing, H. Tabuchi, B. Protess, Volkswagen Said to Be Near Deal With U.S. in Diesel Case, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface & Coatings Technology
AbbreviationSurf. Coat. Technol.
ISSN (print)0257-8972
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Materials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles