How to format your references using the Stem Cell Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stem Cell Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tanaka KL. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars. Nature. 2005;437:991–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Charbonnel C, Talon S. Influence of gravity waves on the internal rotation and Li abundance of solar-type stars. Science. 2005;309:2189–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Werner SL, Barken D, Hoffmann A. Stimulus specificity of gene expression programs determined by temporal control of IKK activity. Science. 2005;309:1857–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Edwards EJ, Osborne CP, Strömberg CAE, Smith SA, C4 Grasses Consortium, Bond WJ, et al. The origins of C4 grasslands: integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science. Science. 2010;328:587–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kassapoglou C. Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Aoki T, Kanemitsu S, Nakahara M, Ohno Y, editors. Zeta Functions, Topology and Quantum Physics. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wohlstadter E, Devanbu P. Aspect-Oriented Development of Crosscutting Features in Distributed, Heterogeneous Systems. In: Rashid A, Aksit M, editors. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 69–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stem Cell Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Water found on extrasolar ‘hot Jupiter’ [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:‘hot-jupiter’/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: Experts Cited a Range of Requirements as Burdensome. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Apr. Report No.: GAO-13-371.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cox DC. A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: A Photo Opportunity; Serendipity or Not, Truck Full of Spuds Becomes a Star. New York Times. 1992 Jul 23;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStem Cell Research & Therapy
AbbreviationStem Cell Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1757-6512
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
Cell Biology
Molecular Medicine
Medicine (miscellaneous)

Other styles