How to format your references using the Stem Cell Research & Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stem Cell Research & Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Herrling P. Experiments in social responsibility. Nature. 2006;439:267–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mashburn LM, Whiteley M. Membrane vesicles traffic signals and facilitate group activities in a prokaryote. Nature. 2005;437:422–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bidle KD, Manganelli M, Azam F. Regulation of oceanic silicon and carbon preservation by temperature control on bacteria. Science. 2002;298:1980–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Reay D, Sabine C, Smith P, Hymus G. Climate change 2007: spring-time for sinks. Nature. 2007;446:727–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barnes P, Davies M. Sub-Contracting under the JCT 2005 Forms. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
1. Duplantier B, Raimond J-M, Rivasseau V, editors. Quantum Decoherence: Poincaré Seminar 2005. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonçalves RC, Pereira J, Jiménez-Peris R. An RDMA Middleware for Asynchronous Multi-stage Shuffling in Analytical Processing. In: Jelasity M, Kalyvianaki E, editors. Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 16th IFIP WG 61 International Conference, DAIS 2016, Held as Part of the 11th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 6-9, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 61–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stem Cell Research & Therapy.

Blog post
1. Davis J. New “Hog-Nosed” Rat Discovered In Indonesia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: RCED-88-83.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Migues KP. A Qualitative Exploration of Retention of Experienced Teachers: Why Do They Stay? [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hollander S. Staten Island Wins Championship of Class A League Again. New York Times. 2002 Sep 13;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleStem Cell Research & Therapy
AbbreviationStem Cell Res. Ther.
ISSN (online)1757-6512
ScopeBiochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
Cell Biology
Molecular Medicine
Medicine (miscellaneous)

Other styles