How to format your references using the Statistical Methods & Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Statistical Methods & Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cressey D (2011) Animal research: Battle scars. Nature 470:452–453
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens B, Feingold G (2009) Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system. Nature 461:607–613
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne BC, Voris HK, Ng PKL (2002) Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature 418:143
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mao G, Perea RF, Howells WS, et al (2000) Relaxation in polymer electrolytes on the nanosecond timescale. Nature 405:163–165

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meschede D (2017) Optics, Light, and Lasers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
White MA, Murray AS (eds) (2015) Evidence-Based Approaches in Positive Education: Implementing a Strategic Framework for Well-being in Schools. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt W, Stary C (2010) Establishing an Informed S-BPM Community. In: Buchwald H, Fleischmann A, Seese D, Stary C (eds) S-BPM ONE – Setting the Stage for Subject-Oriented Business Process Management: First International Workshop, Karlsruhe, Germany, October 22, 2009. Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 34–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Statistical Methods & Applications.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Discover A 7-Meter-Long Dinosaur. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Highway Research: Systematic Selection and Evaluation Processes Needed for Research Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan SA (2017) An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Picking a Portfolio With Pokéballs. New York Times BU19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cressey 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Stevens and Feingold 2009; Cressey 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens and Feingold 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mao et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleStatistical Methods & Applications
AbbreviationStat. Methods Appt.
ISSN (print)1618-2510
ISSN (online)1613-981X
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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