How to format your references using the St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Lozier, Deconstructing the conveyor belt, Science. 328 (2010) 1507–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.E. Raymo, J.X. Mitrovica, Collapse of polar ice sheets during the stage 11 interglacial, Nature. 483 (2012) 453–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.L. Jockers, M. Sag, J. Schultz, Digital archives: Don’t let copyright block data mining, Nature. 490 (2012) 29–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Abooali, G.S. Lall, K. Coughlan, H.S. Lall, B.F. Gibbs, V.V. Sumbayev, Crucial involvement of xanthine oxidase in the intracellular signalling networks associated with human myeloid cell function, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.E. Turner, D.J. Downing, J.S. Bogard, Statistical Methods in Radiation Physics, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
O. Semenov, ESD Protection Device and Circuit Design for Advanced CMOS Technologies, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Wolf, P. Friedrich, J. Clauss, A. Scholz, Telematic Medical Systems for Individualized and Personalized Assistance, in: O. Dössel, W.C. Schlegel (Eds.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/5 Information and Communication in Medicine, Telemedicine and e-Health, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 13–16.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, We Should Not Dismiss The Dangers Of ‘Killer Robots’ So Quickly, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Technical Training, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.M. Ball-Miles, The relationship between witnessing verbal marital conflict as a child and the behavioral anger responses in adulthood, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Barry, S. Kishkovsky, For Tolstoy and Russia, Still No Happy Ending, New York Times. (2011) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleSt. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics
ISSN (print)2405-7223

Other styles