How to format your references using the St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. de Jong, Evolution. Is invariance across animal species just an illusion?, Science. 309 (2005) 1193–1195.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-P. Després, I. Lemieux, Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, Nature. 444 (2006) 881–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Altewischer, M.P. van Exter, J.P. Woerdman, Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons, Nature. 418 (2002) 304–306.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Kannan, K. Singh, S. Gill, T. Fürstenhaupt, V. Thangadurai, Chemically stable proton conducting doped BaCeO₃ -no more fear to SOFC wastes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Olofsson, Probabilities, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
V.K. Kool, Psychology of Technology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Vlachopoulos, Erectile Dysfunction and Testosterone, in: M. Viigimaa, C. Vlachopoulos, M. Doumas (Eds.), Erectile Dysfunction in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: A Guide for Clinicians, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for St. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics.

Blog post
J. Fang, Robot Makes You Feel Like There’s a Ghost Behind You, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: Additional Actions Needed for Three Safety Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.B. Carman, Leadership style and church attendance: An ex post facto study of Churches of Christ in Texas, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
A. Kaminer, A. Southall, Baruch College Student Dies After Fraternity Ritual in Poconos, New York Times. (2013) A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSt. Petersburg Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics
ISSN (print)2405-7223

Other styles