How to format your references using the Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abbott A. A physical response to architecture. Nature. 2002;420:126.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yuan J, Yankner BA. Apoptosis in the nervous system. Nature. 2000;407:802–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pierce SE, Clack JA, Hutchinson JR. Three-dimensional limb joint mobility in the early tetrapod Ichthyostega. Nature. 2012;486:523–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hipkin CR, Simpson DJ, Wainwright SJ, Salem MA. Nitrification by plants that also fix nitrogen. Nature. 2004;430:98–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Meier HB, Marthinsen JE, Gantenbein PA. Swiss Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kassim TA, editor. Water Pollution: Environmental Impact Assessment of Recycled Wastes on Surface and Ground Waters; Risk Analysis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ashraf S, Zuhaib M. Fungal Biodiversity: A Potential Tool in Plant Disease Management. In: Malik A, Grohmann E, Alves M, editors. Management of Microbial Resources in the Environment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 69–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. New Rover Will Reach Mars In 2018 And Drill Two Meters Below The Surface In Search Of Life. IFLScience. 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/exomars-rover-hopes-search-martian-life-oxi-planum-2018/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Implementation of Reform Legislation Needed to Improve Acquisitions and Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nonu ME. Eagle Lake Climate Change during the Holocene and during the Last 100 Years. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. Comics Sales Rise, in Paper and Pixels. New York Times. 2014;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology
ISSN (print)1758-2555
Scope

Other styles