How to format your references using the Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kunzig R. Perceptions of science. Deep-sea biology: living with the endless frontier. Science. 2003;302:991.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Both C, Visser ME. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in a long-distance migrant bird. Nature. 2001;411:296–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rossa FD, Dercole F, Piccardi C. Profiling core-periphery network structure by random walkers. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Nielsen EE, Hansen MM, Schmidt C, Meldrup D, Grønkjaer P. Fisheries. Population of origin of Atlantic cod. Nature. 2001;413:272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Burkinshaw SM. Physico-chemical Aspects of Textile Coloration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Fleer M, Ridgway A, editors. Visual Methodologies and Digital Tools for Researching with Young Children: Transforming Visuality. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kool VK, Agrawal R. Behavior in the Virtual Environment. In: Agrawal R, editor. Psychology of Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 187–251.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Check Out These Amazing Artworks Created With Microbes In A Petri Dish. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Good Progress on Interim Replacement for Outage-Plagued System, but Risks Can Be Further Reduced. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hidalgo F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Rostropovich Is Laid to Rest Near Another Russian Titan. New York Times. 2007;:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology
ISSN (print)1758-2555

Other styles