How to format your references using the Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Deschamps J. Developmental biology. Hox genes in the limb: a play in two acts. Science. 2004;304:1610–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Behnia R, Munro S. Organelle identity and the signposts for membrane traffic. Nature. 2005;438:597–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS. How and why do insects migrate? Science. 2006;313:794–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Purnell MA, Bell MA, Baines DC, Hart PJB, Travis MP. Correlated evolution and dietary change in fossil stickleback. Science. 2007;317:1887.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Griskey RG. Transport Phenomena and Unit Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Tjoa AM, Xu L, Chaudhry SS, editors. Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems: IFIP TC 8 International Conference on Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems (CONFENIS 2006) April 24–26, 2006, Vienna, Austria. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bresciani R, Butterfield A. A Probabilistic Theory of Designs Based on Distributions. In: Wolff B, Gaudel M-C, Feliachi A, editors. Unifying Theories of Programming: 4th International Symposium, UTP 2012, Paris, France, August 27-28, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 105–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Scientists Want To Study LSD Microdosing For The First Time, But They Need Your Help. IFLScience. 2017. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Assessment of Overhead Persistent Infrared Technology Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Conlin LD. Building shared understandings in introductory physics tutorials through risk, repair, conflict & comedy. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cooper M. Met Opera Announces Lineup of Screenings. New York Times. 2017;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology
ISSN (print)1758-2555

Other styles