How to format your references using the Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Schenkel, Science policy. The challenge of feeding scientific advice into policy-making, Science. 330 (2010) 1749–1751.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Tang, A. Guo, Choice behavior of Drosophila facing contradictory visual cues, Science. 294 (2001) 1543–1547.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.C. Conaway, C.S. Brower, J.W. Conaway, Emerging roles of ubiquitin in transcription regulation, Science. 296 (2002) 1254–1258.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Weixlbaumer, H. Jin, C. Neubauer, R.M. Voorhees, S. Petry, A.C. Kelley, V. Ramakrishnan, Insights into translational termination from the structure of RF2 bound to the ribosome, Science. 322 (2008) 953–956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Conrick IV, S. Hanson, Vertical Option Spreads, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P.A. Estévez, J.C. Príncipe, P. Zegers, eds., Advances in Self-Organizing Maps: 9th International Workshop, WSOM 2012 Santiago, Chile, December 12-14, 2012 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Sterer, M. Rosenberg, Breath Odors of Nasal and Pharyngeal Origin, in: M. Rosenberg (Ed.), Breath Odors: Origin, Diagnosis, and Management, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 41–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Groundbreaking Test For Parkinson’s Disease Could Lead To Early Detection, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Safety: New Airlines Illustrate Long-Standing Problems in FAA’s Inspection Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Geist, The marriage economy: Examining the economic impact and the context of marriage in comparative perspective, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, It’s Time to Retrieve Time’s Time Capsule, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
AbbreviationSpectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)1386-1425
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles