How to format your references using the Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.M. Reynolds, Mussels realize Weierstrassian Lévy walks as composite correlated random walks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4409.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-F. Côté, K. Vuori, Cell biology. Two lipids that give direction, Science. 324 (2009) 346–347.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Foley, M. Tiepolo, R. Vannucci, Growth of early continental crust controlled by melting of amphibolite in subduction zones, Nature. 417 (2002) 837–840.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Yang, J. Carpena-Núñez, L.F. Fonseca, A. Biaggi-Labiosa, G.W. Hunter, Shape-controlled synthesis of palladium and copper superlattice nanowires for high-stability hydrogen sensors, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Nemethy, Business Exit Planning, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Yülek, ed., Economic Planning and Industrial Policy in the Globalizing Economy: Concepts, Experience and Prospects, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Xu, Z. Zeng, A Low Redundancy and High Coverage Node Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks, in: L. Sun, H. Ma, D. Fang, J. Niu, W. Wang (Eds.), Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks: The 8th China Conference, CWSN 2014, Xi’an, China, October 31--November 2, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy.

Blog post
T. Hale, Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo?, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Lewis Research Center Attempts To Procure Suitable Wind Turbine Rotor Blades, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Al Hashimi, Local Measurement and Characterization via Fluorescing Materials for Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, QUICK BITE: Garwood; An Argument for a Pie Safe, New York Times. (2005) 14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
AbbreviationSpectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)1386-1425
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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