How to format your references using the Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Shneiderman, Computer science. Science 2.0, Science. 319 (2008) 1349–1350.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Sawa, S.H. Snyder, Genetics. Two genes link two distinct psychoses, Science. 310 (2005) 1128–1129.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Yoshizawa, M. Tamura, M. Fujita, Diels-alder in aqueous molecular hosts: unusual regioselectivity and efficient catalysis, Science. 312 (2006) 251–254.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Martin, P.D. Bardwell, C.J. Woo, M. Fan, M.J. Shulman, M.D. Scharff, Activation-induced cytidine deaminase turns on somatic hypermutation in hybridomas, Nature. 415 (2002) 802–806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-M. Noyer, Transformation of Collective Intelligences, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
N.A. Anjum, M.-T. Chan, S. Umar, eds., Ascorbate-Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Suzuki, Polyol Metabolism and Stress Tolerance in Horticultural Plants, in: Y. Kanayama, A. Kochetov (Eds.), Abiotic Stress Biology in Horticultural Plants, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2015: pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy.

Blog post
J. Fang, What Are These Bizarre Formations At Meteorite Fall Sites?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carrier Safety: Reincarnating Commercial Vehicle Companies Pose Safety Threat to Motoring Public; Federal Safety Agency Has Initiated Efforts to Prevent Future Occurrences, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Boucher, An action research project: Development of a pre-licensure examination review course for Emergency Medical Technician program graduates at a rural community college, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, His Slump in the Past, a Met Ensures His Teammates’ Struggles Matter Less, New York Times. (2017) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
AbbreviationSpectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)1386-1425
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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