How to format your references using the Soil & Tillage Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soil & Tillage Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baraniuk, R.G., 2011. More is less: signal processing and the data deluge. Science 331, 717–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stoltz, D.B., Whitfield, J.B., 2009. Virology. Making nice with viruses. Science 323, 884–885.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakamaki, T., Suzuki, A., Ohtani, E., 2006. Stability of hydrous melt at the base of the Earth’s upper mantle. Nature 439, 192–194.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pertz, O., Hodgson, L., Klemke, R.L., Hahn, K.M., 2006. Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature 440, 1069–1072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stack, T., Ostrom, L.T., Wilhelmsen, C.A., 2016. Occupational Ergonomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nihoyannopoulos, P., Kisslo, J. (Eds.), 2009. Echocardiography. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Tan, J., 2006. LIMITED DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SINGAPORE EDUCATION SYSTEM, in: Bjork, C. (Ed.), Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions, EDUCATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: ISSUES, CONCERNS AND PROSPECTS. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soil & Tillage Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. New Hypothesis Could Explain How The “Impossible” EM Drive Works [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Hazardous Materials: Federal Training for First Responders to Highway and Railroad Incidents (No. RCED-89-146FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schellenberg, D.L., 2010. Divorced women, poverty, and the Social Security Act: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fiske, I.H., 1906. KEATS’S “LAMIA.”; Found on Shelley’s Drowned Body and Cast Into His Funeral Flames. New York Times REVIEW OF BOOKSBR61.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baraniuk, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baraniuk, 2011; Stoltz and Whitfield, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stoltz and Whitfield, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Pertz et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSoil & Tillage Research
AbbreviationSoil Tillage Res.
ISSN (print)0167-1987
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Soil Science
Earth-Surface Processes

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