How to format your references using the Software & Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Software & Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, G.C.: Cell biology. NO says yes to mitochondria. Science. 299, 838–839 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Grasset, E.K., Cerutti, A.: Immunology. Retroviral help for B cells. Science. 346, 1454–1455 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, U., Schwarz, A., Wiesendanger, R.: Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution. Nature. 446, 522–525 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grill, S.W., Gönczy, P., Stelzer, E.H., Hyman, A.A.: Polarity controls forces governing asymmetric spindle positioning in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Nature. 409, 630–633 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, B., Banks, D., Clark, L.: Water Wells and Boreholes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2006)
An edited book
Laurikainen, E., Peletier, R., Gadotti, D. eds: Galactic Bulges. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Panasyuk, V.V., Marukha, V.I., Sylovanyuk, V.P.: Injection Materials: Technological, Mechanical, and Service Characteristics. In: Marukha, V.I. and Sylovanyuk, V.P. (eds.) Injection Technologies for the Repair of Damaged Concrete Structures. pp. 97–114. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Software & Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Life On Earth Might Have Started Inside Comet Craters


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Congestion: Intelligent Transportation Systems’ Promise for Managing Congestion Falls Short, and DOT Could Better Facilitate Their Strategic Use. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauper, A.R.: Effects of leadership training and networking opportunities on professional advancement: A quantitative study, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: U.S.O.C. Narrows Bids to Four Cities, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoftware & Systems Modeling
AbbreviationSoftw. Syst. Model.
ISSN (print)1619-1366
ISSN (online)1619-1374
Modelling and Simulation

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