How to format your references using the Software & Systems Modeling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Software & Systems Modeling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, K.: Call for clinical-trial reform leaves critics unmoved. Nature. 419, 546 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, L., Clevers, H.: Coexistence of quiescent and active adult stem cells in mammals. Science. 327, 542–545 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Shepherd, D.S., Claussen, M.J., Kurtz, S.E.: Evidence for a solar system-size accretion disk around the massive protostar G192.16-3.82. Science. 292, 1513–1518 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xie, W.-J., Li, M.-X., Jiang, Z.-Q., Zhou, W.-X.: Triadic motifs in the dependence networks of virtual societies. Sci. Rep. 4, 5244 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton, E.: Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Shahid, A., Wilkinson, K., Marcu, S., Shapiro, C.M. eds: STOP, THAT and One Hundred Other Sleep Scales. Springer, New York, NY (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Scharf, P.M.: Rule-Blocking and Forward-Looking Conditions in the Computational Modelling of Pāṇinian Derivation. In: Jha, G.N. (ed.) Sanskrit Computational Linguistics: 4th International Symposium, New Delhi, India, December 10-12, 2010. Proceedings. pp. 48–56. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Software & Systems Modeling.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Google Hopes To Connect Indonesia To The Web With Internet-Beaming Balloons,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education’s Estimate of Applicants’ State Tax Payments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez, G.: An educational program to support Latina teen mothers: A grant proposal project, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: That General-Store Feeling, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSoftware & Systems Modeling
AbbreviationSoftw. Syst. Model.
ISSN (print)1619-1366
ISSN (online)1619-1374
Modelling and Simulation

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