How to format your references using the Soft Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soft Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Cyranoski, Nature, 2001, 410, 619.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. D. West and C. T. Bergstrom, Science, 2011, 334, 1503–1504.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. J. Miller, R. C. Nichol and D. J. Batuski, Science, 2001, 292, 2302–2303.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Suslova, O. El-Atwani, D. Sagapuram, S. S. Harilal and A. Hassanein, Sci. Rep., 2014, 4, 6845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Matloff and J. H. Chaillou, Nonprofit Investment and Development Solutions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
A. de Janvry and R. Kanbur, Eds., Poverty, Inequality and Development: Essays in Honor of Erik Thorbecke, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006, vol. 1.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Karimi-Abdolrezaee and E. Eftekharpour, in Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord, eds. R. Jandial and M. Y. Chen, Springer, New York, NY, 2012, pp. 53–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soft Matter.

Blog post
R. Andrews, DARPA Is Building Jazz-Playing Robots,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. B. Bourne, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ROBERT KELLY; Robert Kelly is a poet who teaches literature and writing at Bard College, New York Times, 1990, 77.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSoft Matter
AbbreviationSoft Matter
ISSN (print)1744-683X
ISSN (online)1744-6848
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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