How to format your references using the Social Sciences & Humanities Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Sciences & Humanities Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lučić, V. (2014). Neuroscience: towards unified vesicle endocytosis. Nature, 515(7526), 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruskov, R., & Tahan, C. (2014). Quantum Processing. Catching the quantum sound wave. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6206), 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kutnjak, Z., Petzelt, J., & Blinc, R. (2006). The giant electromechanical response in ferroelectric relaxors as a critical phenomenon. Nature, 441(7096), 956–959.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Onodera, R., Motoyama, K., Okamatsu, A., Higashi, T., & Arima, H. (2013). Potential use of folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin as an anticancer agent. Scientific Reports, 3, 1104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, T. (2012). Investing in the High Yield Municipal Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Membrey, P. (2015). Learn Raspberry Pi 2 with Linux and Windows 10. (D. Hows, Ed.) (Second Edition). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Chatterjee, S., Pun, K. P., Stanić, N., Tsividis, Y., & Kinget, P. (2007). A 0.5 V 5th-Order Low-Pass Elliptic Filter. In K. P. Pun, N. Stanić, Y. Tsividis, & P. Kinget (Eds.), Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5 V (pp. 61–75). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Sciences & Humanities Open.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 8). John Glenn, First American To Orbit The Earth, Dies At 95. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). OPM Retirement Modernization: Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses Need to Be Addressed (No. GAO-12-226T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, R. (2010). A mentoring program for Latino foster youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, January 26). Film Series. New York Times, p. C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lučić, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lučić, 2014; Ruskov & Tahan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruskov & Tahan, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kutnjak, Petzelt, & Blinc, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Onodera, Motoyama, Okamatsu, Higashi, & Arima, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Sciences & Humanities Open
ISSN (print)2590-2911

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