How to format your references using the Soccer & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Soccer & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks, R. “The Relationship between Matter and Life.” Nature 409, no. 6818 (January 18, 2001): 409–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pahlevan, Kaveh, and Alessandro Morbidelli. “Collisionless Encounters and the Origin of the Lunar Inclination.” Nature 527, no. 7579 (November 26, 2015): 492–94.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bao, Ju, Ho-Jin Lee, and Jie J. Zheng. “Genome-Wide Network Analysis of Wnt Signaling in Three Pediatric Cancers.” Scientific Reports 3 (October 17, 2013): 2969.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Heckman, D. S., D. M. Geiser, B. R. Eidell, R. L. Stauffer, N. L. Kardos, and S. B. Hedges. “Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293, no. 5532 (August 10, 2001): 1129–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, Andrei. Political Atlas of the Modern World. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
An edited book
Bruza, Peter, Donald Sofge, William Lawless, Keith van Rijsbergen, and Matthias Klusch, eds. Quantum Interaction: Third International Symposium, QI 2009, Saarbrücken, Germany, March 25-27, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5494. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Membrey, Peter, and David Hows. “Essential Commands.” In Learn Raspberry Pi 2 with Linux and Windows 10, edited by David Hows, 97–116. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Soccer & Society.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. “Here’s How The World’s Surface Water Has Shifted In The Last 30 Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience, August 26, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Aviation Security: Development of New Security Technology Has Not Met Expectations.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 19, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McIlwain, Carol J. “Defense Institutional Building - Integrating the Work.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, Linda. “The Gown Is Free, the Salute Heartfelt.” New York Times, November 8, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleSoccer & Society
AbbreviationSoccer Soc.
ISSN (print)1466-0970
ISSN (online)1743-9590
ScopeSocial Psychology
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles