How to format your references using the Small Wars & Insurgencies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Small Wars & Insurgencies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gramling, Carolyn. “Science Careers. In the Geosciences, Business Is Booming.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, no. 5890 (August 8, 2008): 856–57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nair, Gautham, and Arjun Raj. “Molecular Biology. Time-Lapse Transcription.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332, no. 6028 (April 22, 2011): 431–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoouline, V., C. H. Greene, and B. D. Esry. “Mechanism for the Destruction of H+3 Ions by Electron Impact.” Nature 412, no. 6850 (August 30, 2001): 891–94.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shimada, Asako, Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka, Toru Nakatsu, Masatoshi Nakajima, Youichi Naoe, Hiroko Ohmiya, Hiroaki Kato, and Makoto Matsuoka. “Structural Basis for Gibberellin Recognition by Its Receptor GID1.” Nature 456, no. 7221 (November 27, 2008): 520–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paoluzzi, Alberto, Valerio Pascucci, Michele Vicentino, Claudio Baldazzi, and Simone Portuesi. Geometric Programming for Computer-Aided Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Domek, Stefan, and Paweł Dworak, eds. Theoretical Developments and Applications of Non-Integer Order Systems: 7th Conference on Non-Integer Order Calculus and Its Applications, Szczecin, Poland. 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 357. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Karvalics, László Z. “Emerging New Information Literacies – A Conceptual Outlook.” In Information Literacy. Lifelong Learning and Digital Citizenship in the 21st Century: Second European Conference, ECIL 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 20-23, 2014. Proceedings, edited by Serap Kurbanoğlu, Sonja Špiranec, Esther Grassian, Diane Mizrachi, and Ralph Catts, 37–46. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Small Wars & Insurgencies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “The Science of Naming New Discoveries.” IFLScience. IFLScience, November 25, 2013.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Transportation Security: TSA Has Developed a Risk-Based Covert Testing Program, but Could Better Mitigate Aviation Security Vulnerabilities Identified Through Covert Tests.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 8, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
White, Angel Elizabeth. “Female Ministers in Pastoral Leadership: A Phenomenological Study.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr., and Hannah Alani. “Man Who Pushed Passenger Who Died on Subway Tracks Is Acquitted.” New York Times, July 17, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleSmall Wars & Insurgencies
AbbreviationSmall Wars Insur.
ISSN (print)0959-2318
ISSN (online)1743-9558
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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