How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers MG Jr. Cell biology. Moonlighting in mitochondria. Science 2009;323:723–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rock JR, Hogan BLM. Developmental biology. Branching takes nerve. Science 2010;329:1610–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gnone G, Moriconi T, Gambini G. Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins. Nature 2006;441:E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stirling CH, Esat TM, Lambeck K, McCulloch MT, Blake SG, Lee DC, et al. Orbital forcing of the marine isotope stage 9 interglacial. Science 2001;291:290–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang W, Chou X, Shi T, Ma Z, Bao H, Chen J, et al. Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Baugher S, Spencer-Wood SM, editors. Archaeology and Preservation of Gendered Landscapes. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Carey FA, Sundberg RJ. Nucleophilic Substitution. In: Sundberg RJ, editor. Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part A: Structure and Mechanisms, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007, p. 389–472.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine: X.

Blog post
Fang J. Speedy But “Bearded” Ladies Get No Love From Male Lizards. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller K. Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times 2017:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1427

Other styles