How to format your references using the Sleep Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Falk D. Careers in science offer women an unusual bonus: immortality. Nature 2000;407:833.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Kiberstis P, Roberts L. Breast cancer. A race still unfinished. Introduction. Science 2014;343:1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Komatitsch D, Ritsema J, Tromp J. The spectral-element method, Beowulf computing, and global seismology. Science 2002;298:1737–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Kasturi SP, Skountzou I, Albrecht RA, Koutsonanos D, Hua T, Nakaya HI, et al. Programming the magnitude and persistence of antibody responses with innate immunity. Nature 2011;470:543–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Hirsch F, Kemp J, Ilkka J. Mobile Web Services. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
[1]
Monvel AB de, Buchholz D, Iagolnitzer D, Moschella U, editors. Rigorous Quantum Field Theory: A Festschrift for Jacques Bros. vol. 251. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Mayer MP. Chaperones in the Morphogenesis of Viruses. In: Pockley AG, Calderwood SK, Santoro MG, editors. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Heat Shock Proteins in Infectious Disease, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010, p. 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Medicine: X.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. New Drug Delivery System Could Replace Injections. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Systems Acquisition and the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Frederique NP. The effectiveness of school based intensive probation for reducing recidivism: An evaluation of Maryland’s Spotlight on Schools program. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Like Cubs, the Nationals Seek to End a Drought. New York Times 2016:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1427
Scope

Other styles