How to format your references using the Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein R. Science by any means necessary. Science. 2015;347(6222):686.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prasad A, Pospíšil P. Towards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Y, Magan JJ, Blau WJ. A general strategy for hybrid thin film fabrication and transfer onto arbitrary substrates. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4822.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Caraveo G, van Rossum DB, Patterson RL, Snyder SH, Desiderio S. Action of TFII-I outside the nucleus as an inhibitor of agonist-induced calcium entry. Science. 2006;314(5796):122-125.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nedoma J, Stehlík J, Hlaváček I, Daněk J, Dostálová T, Přečková P. Mathematical and Computational Methods in Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Elgie R, Moestrup S, eds. Semi-Presidentialism in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Cattaneo G, Ciucci D, Bianucci D. Entropy and Co–entropy of Partitions and Coverings with Applications to Roughness Theory. In: Bello R, Falcón R, Pedrycz W, Kacprzyk J, eds. Granular Computing: At the Junction of Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer; 2008:55-77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation.

Blog post
Hale T. Anxiety-Inducing Medical Case Of “Penile Strangulation” Has A Happy Ending. IFLScience. Published March 16, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Information: Production and Quality Deserve Increased Attention. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuart K. The Relationship Between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. Fun if by Land and Fun if by Sea. New York Times. August 21, 2005:512.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
AbbreviationSleep Health
ISSN (print)2352-7218

Other styles