How to format your references using the Signal Processing: Image Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing: Image Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Lloyd, Plant science. Microtubules make tracks for cellulose, Science. 312 (2006) 1482–1483.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Abrahamson, J. Dinniss, Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil, Nature. 403 (2000) 519–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Briggs, G.R. Mangun, W.M. Usrey, Attention enhances synaptic efficacy and the signal-to-noise ratio in neural circuits, Nature. 499 (2013) 476–480.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Sacco, R. Doyonnas, P. Kraft, S. Vitorovic, H.M. Blau, Self-renewal and expansion of single transplanted muscle stem cells, Nature. 456 (2008) 502–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Sexton, Trump University Branding 101, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
T. Okamoto, X. Wang, eds., Public Key Cryptography – PKC 2007: 10th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography Beijing, China, April 16-20, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Inaba, T. Iida, T. Yamasaki, K. Fume, Y. Mizoguchi, S. Nagano, T. Kawamura, Pattern-Based Semantic Tagging for Ontology Population, in: R. Kowalczyk, M. Huhns, M. Klusch, Z. Maamar, Q.B. Vo (Eds.), Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2008 International Workshop, SOCASE 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 12, 2008 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing: Image Communication.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Breakthrough In Fight Against Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Employers’ Liability Act: Issues Associated With Changing How Railroad Work-Related Injuries Are Compensated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Hernandez, Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steven Lee Myers; Erin, Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article, Suicide Bomber Kills 9 at Moscow Subway Station, New York Times. (2004) A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing: Image Communication
AbbreviationSignal Process. Image Commun.
ISSN (print)0923-5965
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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