How to format your references using the Signal Processing: Image Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing: Image Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.F. Keeling, Comment on “The ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2,” Science. 308 (2005) 1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Bloom, A. Joglekar, Towards building a chromosome segregation machine, Nature. 463 (2010) 446–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. O’Nions, R. Pitman, C. Marsh, Science of nuclear warheads, Nature. 415 (2002) 853–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, D. Wang, P.J. Baker, F.L. Pratt, D. Zhu, Candidate quantum spin liquid due to dimensional reduction of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.M. Bragg, Accounting Best Practices, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2013.
An edited book
E.-K. Boukas, Mechatronic Systems: Analysis, Design and Implementation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Marchesani, L. Pomante, M. Pugliese, F. Santucci, Definition and Development of a Topology-Based Cryptographic Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks, in: M. Zuniga, G. Dini (Eds.), Sensor Systems and Software: 4th International ICST Conference, S-Cube 2013, Lucca, Italy, June 11-12, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013: pp. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing: Image Communication.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Musician Turns Lemur Calls Into Beatbox Music, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Accounting Adjustments--Tank-Automotive Command, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Bunt, The saxophone works of Karlheinz Stockhausen, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
V. Yee, E. Rosenberg, Fatal Brooklyn Apartment Fire Was Arson, Police Say, New York Times. (2015) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing: Image Communication
AbbreviationSignal Process. Image Commun.
ISSN (print)0923-5965
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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