How to format your references using the Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Leggett, Physics. Superfluidity in a crystal?, Science. 305 (2004) 1921–1922.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Ponce de León, C.P. Zollikofer, Neanderthal cranial ontogeny and its implications for late hominid diversity, Nature. 412 (2001) 534–538.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Zhao, Q. Liu, X. Wang, Competitive dynamics on complex networks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.B. Mitzi, L.L. Kosbar, C.E. Murray, M. Copel, A. Afzali, High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating, Nature. 428 (2004) 299–303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Analyzing and Managing the Security Vulnerabilities of Fixed Chemical Sites, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
A. Wicks, ed., Structural Health Monitoring, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
G.D. Fleishman, I.N. Toptygin, Wave–Particle and Wave–Wave Interactions, in: I.N. Toptygin (Ed.), Cosmic Electrodynamics: Electrodynamics and Magnetic Hydrodynamics of Cosmic Plasmas, Springer, New York, NY, 2013: pp. 139–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical.

Blog post
J. Fang, Pythons know their way home, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Intermodal Transportation: A Variety of Factors Influence Airport-Intercity Passenger Rail Connectivity, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Schaff, What characterizes and impacts student transformational learning in a community college work placement context, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr., A. Southall, A.L. Baker, In the South Bronx, Lives Derailed by Guns, New York Times. (2017) A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors & Actuators: B. Chemical
AbbreviationSens. Actuators B Chem.
ISSN (print)0925-4005
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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