How to format your references using the Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Ory, Scientists and societies. Two-body problem, Nature. 429 (2004) 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Trampert, H.J. van Heijst, Global azimuthal anisotropy in the transition zone, Science. 296 (2002) 1297–1299.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. van Polanen, W.M. Bergmann Tiest, A.M.L. Kappers, Target contact and exploration strategies in haptic search, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6254.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Turra, A.B. Manzano, R.J.S. Dias, M.M. Mahiques, L. Barbosa, D. Balthazar-Silva, F.T. Moreira, Three-dimensional distribution of plastic pellets in sandy beaches: shifting paradigms, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4435.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.L. Feldkamp, R.C. Whalen, Financial Stability, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
I. Gultepe, ed., Fog and Boundary Layer Clouds: Fog Visibility and Forecasting, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Satoh, M. Sugita, T. Yamanaka, M. Tsujimura, R. Ishii, Water Dynamics Within the Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere System in a Steppe Region Covered by Shrubs and Herbaceous Plants, in: N. Yamamura, N. Fujita, A. Maekawa (Eds.), The Mongolian Ecosystem Network: Environmental Issues Under Climate and Social Changes, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2013: pp. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical.

Blog post
T. Hale, Why You Should Stack Copper Coins On Your Laptop, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Fiscal Year 2012 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Wang, Computational Studies on Biomolecular Diffusion and Electrostatics, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. McKINLEY, E.G. Fitzsimmons, Ride-Sharing Apps See Potential Upstate, New York Times. (2015) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors & Actuators: B. Chemical
AbbreviationSens. Actuators B Chem.
ISSN (print)0925-4005
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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