How to format your references using the Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.K. Barnes, Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs, Nature. 412 (2001) 785–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Snir, R.D. Kamien, Entropically driven helix formation, Science. 307 (2005) 1067.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y.M. Yamashita, D.L. Jones, M.T. Fuller, Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome, Science. 301 (2003) 1547–1550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.L. Cowan, B.D. Bruner, N. Huse, J.R. Dwyer, B. Chugh, E.T.J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, R.J.D. Miller, Ultrafast memory loss and energy redistribution in the hydrogen bond network of liquid H2O, Nature. 434 (2005) 199–202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. J.G. Upton, Categorical Data Analysis by Example, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
K.G. Paterson, ed., Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT 2011: 30th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Tallinn, Estonia, May 15-19, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Aidos, A. Fred, k-Nearest Neighbor Classification Using Dissimilarity Increments, in: A. Campilho, M. Kamel (Eds.), Image Analysis and Recognition: 9th International Conference, ICIAR 2012, Aveiro, Portugal, June 25-27, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 27–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Worried About Arsenic In Your Baby’s Rice Cereal? There Are Other Foods That Can Provide Essential Iron, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Education Paperwork Requirements Are Burdensome: Better Federal Controls Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Siczek, Negotiating Socioacademic Space: The Lived Experience of International Second-Language Students in a Mainstream First-year Writing Course, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, Bikes That Roll Toward Jobs, New York Times. (1998) 149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors & Actuators: A. Physical
AbbreviationSens. Actuators A Phys.
ISSN (print)0924-4247
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles