How to format your references using the Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Rockström, A “perfect” agreement in Paris is not essential, Nature. 527 (2015) 411.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Jin, D.W.C. MacMillan, Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C-H functionalization, Nature. 525 (2015) 87–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.R. Waghmare, N.S.K. Gunda, S.K. Mitra, Under-water superoleophobicity of fish scales, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7454.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Kimple, M.E. Kimple, L. Betts, J. Sondek, D.P. Siderovski, Structural determinants for GoLoco-induced inhibition of nucleotide release by Galpha subunits, Nature. 416 (2002) 878–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
X.S. Lin, Introductory Stochastic Analysis for Finance and Insurance: Lin/Introductory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
G.G. Láng, Laser Techniques for the Study of Electrode Processes, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Tirri, The Core of School Pedagogy, in: H. Niemi, A. Toom, A. Kallioniemi (Eds.), Miracle of Education: The Principles and Practices of Teaching and Learning in Finnish Schools, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012: pp. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Pluto And Its Collision-Course Place In Our Solar System, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Implementation Is Under Way, but Enhanced Technical Oversight and Performance Measures Are Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.L. Conill, Dosimetric consequences of the parotid glands using CT-to-CBCT deformable registration during IMRT for late stage head and neck cancers, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, A. Alter, S. Chan, Bob Dylan Wins Nobel Prize, Redefining the Boundaries of Literature, New York Times. (2016) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors & Actuators: A. Physical
AbbreviationSens. Actuators A Phys.
ISSN (print)0924-4247
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles