How to format your references using the Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.I. Glass, Brain disorders across the lifespan, Nature. 527 (2015) S150.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J.D. Rushton, A. Chroneos, Impact of uniaxial strain and doping on oxygen diffusion in CeO2, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6068.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.A. Kiger, H. White-Cooper, M.T. Fuller, Somatic support cells restrict germline stem cell self-renewal and promote differentiation, Nature. 407 (2000) 750–754.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Nakano, T. Takanashi, A. Surlykke, N. Skals, Y. Ishikawa, Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Sewell, Computational Methods of Linear Algebra, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
L. Pehrson, L. Oxelheim, S. Gustavsson, eds., How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Wilzeck, D.M. Kelly, Avian Visual Pseudoneglect: The Effect of Age and Sex on Visuospatial Side Biases, in: D. Csermely, L. Regolin (Eds.), Behavioral Lateralization in Vertebrates: Two Sides of the Same Coin, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensors & Actuators: A. Physical.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why Is The Sun’s Outer Layer 200 Times Hotter Than Its Surface?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Coordinating and Linking Programs Directed Toward Increasing the Numbers of Minority and Disadvantaged Individuals in the Health Professions, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.P. Hess, Exploring the Challenges of Training and Developing Millennials in the Business Environment, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Landler, M.R. Gordon, President Cedes Afghan Strategy To the Pentagon, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensors & Actuators: A. Physical
AbbreviationSens. Actuators A Phys.
ISSN (print)0924-4247
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics

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