How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Büttiker, M. (2009). Physics. Edge-state physics without magnetic fields. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 278–279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leathers, M. L., & Olson, C. R. (2013). Response to comment on “In monkeys making value-based decisions, LIP neurons encode cue salience and not action value.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6131), 430.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohse, D., Schmitz, B., & Versluis, M. (2001). Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles. Nature, 413(6855), 477–478.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yu, H., Tieu, A. K., Lu, C., Liu, X., Godbole, A., Li, H., … Qin, Q. (2014). A deformation mechanism of hard metal surrounded by soft metal during roll forming. Scientific reports, 4, 5017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padilla, E. (2015). Substation Automation Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Molokovsky, S. I. (2005). Intense Electron and Ion Beams. (A. D. Sushkov, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, Z., Hashimoto, M., Guo, B., & Takahashi, K. (2012). A Path Prediction Method for Human-Accompanying Mobile Robot Based on Neural Network. In Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhou, C. Zhang, & Y. Li (Eds.), Intelligent Science and Intelligent Data Engineering: Second Sino-foreign-interchange Workshop, IScIDE 2011, Xi’an, China, October 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 35–42). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 20). Endangered Rhinos in South Africa Will Be Fitted With Spy Cameras In Their Horns. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). For-Profit Schools: Large Schools and Schools that Specialize in Healthcare Are More Likely to Rely Heavily on Federal Student Aid (No. GAO-11-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zimmerman, K. L. (2017). Perceived and preferred organizational culture on behavior intentions in the hospitality industry (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, April 28). Gently, Neighbors Want Statue to Find a Home. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging: An International Journal
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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