How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, B. (2012). Rio+20. Science for sustainable development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watrin, E., & Peters, J.-M. (2007). Molecular biology. How and when the genome sticks together. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5835), 209–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sivars, U., Aivazian, D., & Pfeffer, S. R. (2003). Yip3 catalyses the dissociation of endosomal Rab-GDI complexes. Nature, 425(6960), 856–859.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Han, S., Tang, R., Anderson, L. K., Woerner, T. E., & Pei, Z.-M. (2003). A cell surface receptor mediates extracellular Ca(2+) sensing in guard cells. Nature, 425(6954), 196–200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qiu, X., Ding, C., & Hu, D. (2013). Bistatic SAR Data Processing Algorithms. Solaris South Tower, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Gilroy, S. W., & Harrison, M. D. (Eds.). (2006). Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification: 12th International Workshop, DSVIS 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, July 13-15, 2005. Revised Papers (Vol. 3941). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gilbert, R. J. C. (2010). Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysins. In G. Anderluh & J. Lakey (Eds.), Proteins Membrane Binding and Pore Formation (pp. 56–66). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 14). Injecting Bacteria Can Shrink Tumors. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Next Generation Air Transportation: Collaborative Efforts with European Union Generally Mirror Effective Practices, but Near-Term Challenges Could Delay Implementation (No. GAO-12-48). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, C. (2010). An after-school program at the middle school level for at-risk youth (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A., & McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2016, September 30). Caregiver Who Abused 4-Year-Old Boy Faces 22-Year Sentence for Murder. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging: An International Journal
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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