How to format your references using the Science & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.M. Eagleman, Comment on “The involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in the experience of regret,” Science. 308 (2005) 1260; author reply 1260.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.S. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, Ecology. Oh the locusts sang, then they dropped dead, Science. 306 (2004) 1488–1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Sevenster, T. Beckers, M. Kindt, Prediction error governs pharmacologically induced amnesia for learned fear, Science. 339 (2013) 830–833.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Schoepp-Cothenet, S. Duval, J.M. Santini, W. Nitschke, Comment on “Arsenic (III) fuels anoxygenic photosynthesis in hot spring biofilms from Mono Lake, California,” Science. 323 (2009) 583; author reply 583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jarry, J.N. Beneat, Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
G. Schmidt, H. Abut, K. Takeda, J.H.L. Hansen, eds., Smart Mobile In-Vehicle Systems: Next Generation Advancements, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
R.J. Arceci, D. Small, Targeted Therapeutic Approaches for AML, in: P.J. Houghton, R.J. Arceci (Eds.), Molecularly Targeted Therapy for Childhood Cancer, Springer, New York, NY, 2010: pp. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science & Justice.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Proxima b, The Closest Exoplanet To Earth, Could Be Habitable, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Program Status: Naval Surface Fire Support, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.T. Cashion, Exploring Dielectric Absorption: Data Collection System Development, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Senior, A Teenager’s Mind At War With Itself, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScience & Justice
AbbreviationSci. Justice
ISSN (print)1355-0306
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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