How to format your references using the Science & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Cohen, Breakdown + Breakdown runners-up, Science. 346 (2014) 1450–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Marusyk, K. Polyak, Cancer. Cancer cell phenotypes, in fifty shades of grey, Science. 339 (2013) 528–529.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.C. Santos, M.D. Santos, J.M. Pacheco, Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games, Nature. 454 (2008) 213–216.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.-Y. Jeong, M. Jung, Y.-H. Yim, H. Kim, M. Park, E. Hong, W. Lee, Y.H. Kim, K. Kim, Y.-K. Paik, Chemical structure and biological activity of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer-inducing pheromone, Nature. 433 (2005) 541–545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.H. Pratt, Electrostatic Ignitions of Fires and Explosions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
A.M. Dienstfrey, R.F. Boisvert, eds., Uncertainty Quantification in Scientific Computing: 10th IFIP WG 2.5 Working Conference, WoCoUQ 2011, Boulder, CO, USA, August 1-4, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Lennquist, Response to Major Incidents and Disasters: An Important Part of Trauma Management, in: H.-J. Oestern, O. Trentz, S. Uranues (Eds.), General Trauma Care and Related Aspects: Trauma Surgery II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 31–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science & Justice.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Dance of the Hundred Thousand Asteroids, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Tax Policy: Uncertain Impact of Repealing the Deferral for Reinvested Shipping Income, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Valdez, Taking a closer look at the mental health services act of 2004: A policy analysis, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Fresh Details on the Fed Rescue of A.I.G.’s Insurance Units, New York Times. (2010) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScience & Justice
AbbreviationSci. Justice
ISSN (print)1355-0306
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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