How to format your references using the Science & Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science & Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.K. Percy, Neuroscience. Path to treat Rett syndrome, Science. 342 (2013) 318–320.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.F. Barber, N.C. Elde, Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin, Science. 346 (2014) 1362–1366.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.T. Turvey, O.R. Green, R.N. Holdaway, Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa, Nature. 435 (2005) 940–943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.M. Webster, D. Del Camino, J.P. Dekker, G. Yellen, Intracellular gate opening in Shaker K+ channels defined by high-affinity metal bridges, Nature. 428 (2004) 864–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Initiating Events and Independent Protection Layers in Layer of Protection Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
A. Quarteroni, Introduzione al Calcolo Scientifico: Esercizi e problemi risolti con MATLAB, 3a edizione, Springer, Milano, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
W.W. Bolten, NSAIDs, in: W.U. Kampen, M. Fischer (Eds.), Local Treatment of Inflammatory Joint Diseases: Benefits and Risks, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 63–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science & Justice.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Church Has A Chandelier Made Entirely Of Human Bones, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Information on DOE’s Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Kyriacou, A method of verification of the total treatment time for the APBI (Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) devices: Contura Multilumen Balloon and SAVI applicator, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Mann, America’s dangerous ‘China fantasy,’ New York Times. (2016) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleScience & Justice
AbbreviationSci. Justice
ISSN (print)1355-0306
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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