How to format your references using the Science & Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science & Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallett, M. (2000). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain. Nature, 406(6792), 147–150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth, M. S., & Deheyn, D. D. (2013). Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals. Scientific reports, 3, 1421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, R.-L., Zhang, H., & Jiang, W.-L. (2014). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Scientific reports, 4, 4731.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chereau, D., Boczkowska, M., Skwarek-Maruszewska, A., Fujiwara, I., Hayes, D. B., Rebowski, G., et al. (2008). Leiomodin is an actin filament nucleator in muscle cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5873), 239–243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. (2014). Energy Materials 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gopalakrishnan, K., Ceylan, H., & Attoh-Okine, N. O. (Eds.). (2009). Intelligent and Soft Computing in Infrastructure Systems Engineering: Recent Advances (Vol. 259). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abram, M. R., & Di Caprio, U. (2016). Dynamical Systems and Automata. In G. Minati, M. R. Abram, & E. Pessa (Eds.), Towards a Post-Bertalanffy Systemics (pp. 41–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science & Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, January 24). The Maya Civilization May Have Experienced Two Declines Before Collapsing Forever. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Executive Guide: Measuring Performance and Demonstrating Results of Information Technology Investments (No. AIMD-98-89). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lemheney, A. J. (2014). Design and development of virtual reality simulation for teaching high-risk low-volume problem-prone office-based medical emergencies (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, November 6). ‘Bad’ Legal Advice and the Death Penalty. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hallett 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hallett 2000; Roth and Deheyn 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roth and Deheyn 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chereau et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience & Education
AbbreviationSci. & Educ.
ISSN (print)0926-7220
ISSN (online)1573-1901

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