How to format your references using the Science & Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Science & Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Alternative approaches. Nature, 421(6921), 455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berenbaum, M. R., & Eisner, T. (2008). Ecology. Bugs’ bugs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5898), 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Church, J. A., White, N. J., & Arblaster, J. M. (2005). Significant decadal-scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content. Nature, 438(7064), 74–77.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Benabid, F., Couny, F., Knight, J. C., Birks, T. A., & Russell, P. S. J. (2005). Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Nature, 434(7032), 488–491.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sierra, M. A., de la Torre, M. C., & Cossío, F. P. (2013). More Dead Ends and Detours. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Picardo, M., & Taïeb, A. (Eds.). (2010). Vitiligo. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Neupane, K., & Steinwandt, R. (2011). Communication-Efficient 2-Round Group Key Establishment from Pairings. In A. Kiayias (Ed.), Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2011: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 65–76). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Science & Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 2). Phasing Out Fossil Fuels For Renewables May Not Be A Straightforward Swap. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Identified Ways to Mitigate Data Gaps, but Contingency Plans and Schedules Require Further Attention (No. GAO-13-676). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, R. (2017). What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, May 15). Logic Streams Way To Top of Album Chart. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Berenbaum and Eisner 2008; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berenbaum and Eisner 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Benabid et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleScience & Education
AbbreviationSci. & Educ.
ISSN (print)0926-7220
ISSN (online)1573-1901

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