How to format your references using the School Leadership & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for School Leadership & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geim, A. K. 2009. “Graphene: Status and Prospects.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5934): 1530–1534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R., and F. M. Selten. 2014. “Future Increases in Arctic Precipitation Linked to Local Evaporation and Sea-Ice Retreat.” Nature 509 (7501): 479–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferguson, N. M., C. A. Donnelly, and R. M. Anderson. 2001. “The Foot-and-Mouth Epidemic in Great Britain: Pattern of Spread and Impact of Interventions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5519): 1155–1160.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yoshida, Seiji, Yasuhiro Date, Makiko Akama, and Jun Kikuchi. 2014. “Comparative Metabolomic and Ionomic Approach for Abundant Fishes in Estuarine Environments of Japan.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sokhanvar, Saeed, Javad Dargahi, Siamak Najarian, and Siamak Arbatani. 2012. Tactile Sensing and Displays. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen, and Jean Ann Wyer, eds. 2013. Photophysics of Ionic Biochromophores. Physical Chemistry in Action. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnoldi, Kyle. 2010. “The Monofixation Syndrome: New Considerations on Pathophysiology.” In Pediatric Ophthalmology, Neuro-Ophthalmology, Genetics: Strabismus - New Concepts in Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment, edited by Birgit Lorenz and Michael C. Brodsky, 33–40. Essentials in Ophthalmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for School Leadership & Management.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Butchered Mastodon 15,000 Years Ago Reveals Earlier Human Presence In Southeastern U.S.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Civilian Agencies’ Management and Use of Aircraft. T-GGD-88-15. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, Thomas. 2010. “Assessing the Determinants of Information Technology Adoption in Jamaica’s Public Sector Using the Technology Acceptance Model.” Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 2009. “Skate, Sure, But Don’t Expect A Zamboni.” New York Times, February 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geim 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Geim 2009; Bintanja and Selten 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and Selten 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ferguson, Donnelly, and Anderson 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yoshida et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchool Leadership & Management
AbbreviationSch. Lead.. Manag.
ISSN (print)1363-2434
ISSN (online)1364-2626
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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