How to format your references using the School Leadership & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for School Leadership & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, Emma. 2010. “On High Alert.” Nature 466 (7304): S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dubrovinskaia, Natalia, and Leonid Dubrovinsky. 2013. “Controversy about Ultrahard Nanotwinned CBN.” Nature 502 (7472): E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, Francis S., Michael Morgan, and Aristides Patrinos. 2003. “The Human Genome Project: Lessons from Large-Scale Biology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5617): 286–290.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Junjie, Dong Wei, Kun He, Hang Gong, and Pu Wang. 2014. “Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4141.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kudnig, Simon T., and Bernard Séguin. 2012. Veterinary Surgical Oncology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Madden, Brendan, ed. 2015. Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension. 1st ed. 2015. Current Cardiovascular Therapy. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mandl, Christoph, Markus Hauser, and Hanna Mandl. 2013. “Interdependency of Meetings and Organizations.” In The Co-Creative Meeting: Practicing Consensual Effectivity in Organizations, edited by Markus Hauser and Hanna Mandl, 21–27. SpringerBriefs in Business. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for School Leadership & Management.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “NASA To Explore The Core Of A Failed Planet In Newly Announced Missions.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Management of a National Science Foundation Office of Energy Research and Development Policy Grant to the George Washington University: Questions, Answers, and Recommendations. HRD-77-38. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lynch, Stephen Dennis. 2008. “Distortion of Low-Frequency Acoustic Signals by Interaction with the Moving Ocean Surface.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2017. “A New Rating For Portrayals Of Gender.” New York Times, June 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Marris 2010; Dubrovinskaia and Dubrovinsky 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dubrovinskaia and Dubrovinsky 2013)
  • Three authors: (Collins, Morgan, and Patrinos 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchool Leadership & Management
AbbreviationSch. Lead.. Manag.
ISSN (print)1363-2434
ISSN (online)1364-2626
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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