How to format your references using the School Leadership & Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for School Leadership & Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Quirin. 2003. “NATO Reform Promises More Publicity for Less Science.” Nature 422 (6929): 248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gershenwald, Jeffrey E., and Isaiah J. Fidler. 2002. “Cancer. Targeting Lymphatic Metastasis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5574): 1811–1812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ince, Darrel C., Leslie Hatton, and John Graham-Cumming. 2012. “The Case for Open Computer Programs.” Nature 482 (7386): 485–488.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meriles, C. A., D. Sakellariou, H. Heise, A. J. Moule, and A. Pines. 2001. “Approach to High-Resolution Ex Situ NMR Spectroscopy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5527): 82–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flynn, Michael J., and Wayne Luk. 2011. Computer System Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bebis, George, Richard Boyle, Bahram Parvin, Darko Koracin, Paolo Remagnino, Fatih Porikli, Jörg Peters, et al., eds. 2008. Advances in Visual Computing: 4th International Symposium, ISVC 2008, Las Vegas, NV, USA, December 1-3, 2008. Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 5358. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordon, Judy F., and Robert L. Kramm. 2014. “Clinical Trials for IOP-Lowering Devices to Support an FDA Premarket Submission.” In Surgical Innovations in Glaucoma, edited by John R. Samples and Iqbal Ike K. Ahmed, 61–66. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for School Leadership & Management.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Disease Evolution: How New Illnesses Emerge When We Change How We Live.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. ADP Systems: SSA’s Modernization Efforts Need Redirection. IMTEC-87-16. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pezzolesi, Marcus G. 2008. “Novel Mechanisms of PTEN Dysfunction in PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndromes.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, John. 2017. “‘I Didn’t Move Here to Avoid Chaos.’” New York Times, April 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier 2003; Gershenwald and Fidler 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gershenwald and Fidler 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ince, Hatton, and Graham-Cumming 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Meriles et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleSchool Leadership & Management
AbbreviationSch. Lead.. Manag.
ISSN (print)1363-2434
ISSN (online)1364-2626
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Strategy and Management

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