How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schopper H. Islam and science: where are the new patrons of science? Nature 2006;444:35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voesenek LACJ, Pierik R. Plant science. Plant stress profiles. Science 2008;320:880–881.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akil H, Martone ME, Van Essen DC. Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data. Science 2011;331:708–712.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee P, Lee DJ, Chan C, Chen SW, Ch’en I, Jamora C. Dynamic expression of epidermal caspase 8 simulates a wound healing response. Nature 2009;458:519–523.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR. The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Chetty M, Ngom A, Ahmad S (Eds.). Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: Third IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2008, Melbourne, Australia, October 15-17, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XVI, 472 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrzejewski K, Rovenski V, Walczak P. 2014. Integral Formulas in Foliation Theory. In: Rovenski V, Walczak P, eds. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Geometry and its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports.

Blog post
Andrew E. European Weather-Monitoring Satellite Takes Its First Image Of Earth. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Provide Clear Information and Additional Guidance on the New Starts Ratings Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baxter VP. 2013. Communitarian Leadership Practice Acquisition in Educational Leadership Preparation. Unpublished thesis, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Senior J. A Teenager’s Mind At War With Itself. New York Times 2017;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
AbbreviationScand. J. Med. Sci. Sports
ISSN (print)0905-7188
ISSN (online)1600-0838
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles