How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velasquez-Manoff M. Gut microbiome: the peacekeepers. Nature 2015;518:S3-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berke JD, Eichenbaum HB. Drug addiction and the hippocampus. Science 2001;294:1235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen RP, Chew KH, He S. Dynamic control of collapse in a vortex Airy beam. Sci Rep 2013;3:1406.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bessonov S, Anokhina M, Will CL, Urlaub H, Lührmann R. Isolation of an active step I spliceosome and composition of its RNP core. Nature 2008;452:846–850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tyson H. Microsoft® Word 2010 Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Graeb HE (Ed.). Analog Layout Synthesis: A Survey of Topological Approaches. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011. XV, 302 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Leśniewska B, Sawicka S, Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz B. 2015. On the Underestimated Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Determination of Pt and Pd by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Road Dust Samples. In: Zereini F, Wiseman CLS, eds. Environmental Science and Engineering. Platinum Metals in the Environment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Ebola Test can Rapidly Diagnose the Disease in Minutes. IFLScience 2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts S. 2019. The Other Side of Adversity: Surviving a Destructive Leader Experience. Unpublished thesis, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Kerber Encounters a Pliskova Test, but Not the Usual One. New York Times 2017;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
AbbreviationScand. J. Med. Sci. Sports
ISSN (print)0905-7188
ISSN (online)1600-0838
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles