# How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
R. Deech, 30 years: from IVF to stem cells, Nature. 454 (2008) 280–281.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
D. Acemoglu, J. Robinson, Economics. Foundations of societal inequality, Science. 326 (2009) 678–679.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
J. González-Gutiérrez, J.L. Carrillo-Estrada, J.C. Ruiz-Suárez, Penetration of granular projectiles into a water target, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6762.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
G. Srinivasan, M.J. Whitehouse, I. Weber, A. Yamaguchi, The crystallization age of eucrite zircon, Science. 317 (2007) 345–347.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
G.M. Evans, J.C. Furlong, Environmental Biotechnology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2010.
An edited book
[1]
M. Hermann, Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations: Analytical Approximation and Numerical Methods, Springer India, New Delhi, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
M. Luo, H. He, A Propositional Calculus Formal Deductive System $\mathcal{L}^{U}$ of Universal Logic and Its Completeness, in: L. Wang, Y. Jin (Eds.), Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery: Second International Conference, FSKD 2005, Changsha, China, August 27-29, 2005, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 31–41.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine: X.

Blog post
[1]
E. Andrew, Mesmerizing Gif Shows Cell Division, IFLScience. (2014). https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/mesmerizing-gif-shows-cell-division-real-time/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Implementation of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
W. Ren, The Portrayal of Risk-taking Behaviors in Traffic on the Prime-time Television Series, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2013.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
L. Greenhouse, Justices Shield Medical Devices From Lawsuits, New York Times. (2008) A1.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].