How to format your references using the Respiratory Medicine: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Medicine: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.B. Lambert, Chemistry. A tamed reactive intermediate, Science. 322 (2008) 1333–1334.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Addiscott, P. Brookes, Nitrogen cycle: what governs nitrogen loss from forest soils?, Nature. 418 (2002) 604; discussion 604.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Grieco, A.J. van Noordwijk, M.E. Visser, Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits, Science. 296 (2002) 136–138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.Q. Chambers, J.I. Fisher, H. Zeng, E.L. Chapman, D.B. Baker, G.C. Hurtt, Hurricane Katrina’s carbon footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast forests, Science. 318 (2007) 1107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Gabler, Sociology for Dummies®, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
S. Fischer-Hübner, E. de Leeuw, C. Mitchell, eds., Policies and Research in Identity Management: Third IFIP WG 11.6 Working Conference, IDMAN 2013, London, UK, April 8-9, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Thevenot, J. Chen, M. Finnilä, M. Nieminen, P. Lehenkari, S. Saarakkala, M. Pietikäinen, Local Binary Patterns to Evaluate Trabecular Bone Structure from Micro-CT Data: Application to Studies of Human Osteoarthritis, in: L. Agapito, M.M. Bronstein, C. Rother (Eds.), Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Medicine: X.

Blog post
J. Davis, Ebola Outbreak Has Been Confirmed In The Democratic Republic Of Congo, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Default Rates Need To Be Computed More Appropriately, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.L. Stuehling, “We Speak ‘Hola’ In School”: A Case Study of Global Education in a Partial-Immersion Spanish Preschool, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wilson, Sentencing Will Provide Coda for Television Producer’s Real Crime Drama, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Medicine: X
ISSN (print)2590-1435

Other styles