How to format your references using the Resources, Conservation & Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Resources, Conservation & Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V., 2003. In search of the élite. Nature 426, 713–717.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rikken, G.L., Raupach, E., 2000. Enantioselective magnetochiral photochemistry. Nature 405, 932–935.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, H., Peters, A., Chu, S., 2010. A precision measurement of the gravitational redshift by the interference of matter waves. Nature 463, 926–929.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kinchen, J.M., Cabello, J., Klingele, D., Wong, K., Feichtinger, R., Schnabel, H., Schnabel, R., Hengartner, M.O., 2005. Two pathways converge at CED-10 to mediate actin rearrangement and corpse removal in C. elegans. Nature 434, 93–99.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strachman, D., Bookbinder, R., 2009. Fund of Funds Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Holcman, D., 2015. Stochastic Narrow Escape in Molecular and Cellular Biology: Analysis and Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kang, K., Zhang, J., Cao, Y., Wang, Z., 2015. Simultaneously Retargeting and Super-Resolution for Stereoscopic Video, in: Zha, H., Chen, X., Wang, L., Miao, Q. (Eds.), Computer Vision: CCF Chinese Conference, CCCV 2015, Xi’an, China, September 18-20, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Resources, Conservation & Recycling.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Corneas Regrown From Adult Human Stem Cells [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. NASA Workforce: Briefing on National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Use of Term Appointments (No. GAO-08-920R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liza, J.S., 2009. Mentors’ perceptions of bullying in middle and high school settings (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Yankees Ride Out Chapman’s Latest Turbulence and Rebuff the Mets Again. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin, 2003; Rikken and Raupach, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rikken and Raupach, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kinchen et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleResources, Conservation & Recycling
AbbreviationResour. Conserv. Recycl.
ISSN (print)0921-3449
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Waste Management and Disposal

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