How to format your references using the Resources, Conservation & Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Resources, Conservation & Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2003. Critics slam treatment for SARS as ineffective and perhaps dangerous. Nature 423, 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaproth, B.M., Marone, C., 2013. Slow earthquakes, preseismic velocity changes, and the origin of slow frictional stick-slip. Science 341, 1229–1232.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brummelkamp, T.R., Bernards, R., Agami, R., 2002. A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 296, 550–553.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Agaisse, H., Burrack, L.S., Philips, J.A., Rubin, E.J., Perrimon, N., Higgins, D.E., 2005. Genome-wide RNAi screen for host factors required for intracellular bacterial infection. Science 309, 1248–1251.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBerardinis, L.J., Baum, J.S., First, M.W., Gatwood, G.T., Seth, A.K., 2013. Guidelines for Laboratory Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baeza-Yates, R., Glaz, J., Gzyl, H., Hüsler, J., Palacios, J.L. (Eds.), 2005. Recent Advances in Applied Probability. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Griesbeck, M., Altfeld, M., 2015. Sex Differences in the Manifestations of HIV-1 Infection, in: Klein, S.L., Roberts, C.W. (Eds.), Sex and Gender Differences in Infection and Treatments for Infectious Diseases. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 103–181.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Resources, Conservation & Recycling.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. From Dinosaur Arms To Bird Wings: It’s All In The Wrists [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Armored Systems Modernization: Program Inconsistent With Current Threat and Budgetary Constraints (No. NSIAD-91-254). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trump, R.K., 2010. Self -brand overlap and dissociation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L., 2005. The Multimedia Frank Gehry Now in Cardboard and on Film. New York Times F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2003; Kaproth and Marone, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaproth and Marone, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Agaisse et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleResources, Conservation & Recycling
AbbreviationResour. Conserv. Recycl.
ISSN (print)0921-3449
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Waste Management and Disposal

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