How to format your references using the Resources, Conservation & Recycling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Resources, Conservation & Recycling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, A., 2000. EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY: New Science Chief Must Juggle Missions and Politics. Science 290, 1287a–8a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Z., Zhang, F., 2004. A precocial avian embryo from the Lower Cretaceous of China. Science 306, 653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horodecki, M., Oppenheim, J., Winter, A., 2005. Partial quantum information. Nature 436, 673–676.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Croxall, J.P., Silk, J.R.D., Phillips, R.A., Afanasyev, V., Briggs, D.R., 2005. Global circumnavigations: tracking year-round ranges of nonbreeding albatrosses. Science 307, 249–250.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beecken, W.H., Beecken, C.A., 2017. Fraud Examination Casebook with Documents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Loeber, R., 2011. Young Homicide Offenders and Victims: Risk Factors, Prediction, and Prevention from Childhood, Longitudinal Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Series. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Tang, H., Li, Z.-L., 2014. Retrieval of Land Surface Emissivity from Remotely Sensed Data, in: Li, Z.-L. (Ed.), Quantitative Remote Sensing in Thermal Infrared: Theory and Applications, Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Resources, Conservation & Recycling.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. There Might be Fewer Galaxies out in the Universe Than Expected [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. The Atlanta Region: Welcome to the Now South! (No. 115187). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nomberg, R.I., 2009. Understanding interest group strategies: A case study of civic leaders collaborating with local government (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. The Game and the Shoe. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Watson, 2000; Zhou and Zhang, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Zhang, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Croxall et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleResources, Conservation & Recycling
AbbreviationResour. Conserv. Recycl.
ISSN (print)0921-3449
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Waste Management and Disposal

Other styles