How to format your references using the Research in Science & Technological Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Science & Technological Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ross, Graham. 2006. “Obituary: Richard Dalitz (1925-2006).” Nature 440 (7081): 162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale, John E., and Yong-Gang Li. 2003. “Damage to the Shallow Landers Fault from the Nearby Hector Mine Earthquake.” Nature 421 (6922): 524–526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng, Yuanxi, Siliang Zhang, and Xin Huang. 2014. “A Robust TALENs System for Highly Efficient Mammalian Genome Editing.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3632.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ferguson, Neil M., Derek A. T. Cummings, Christophe Fraser, James C. Cajka, Philip C. Cooley, and Donald S. Burke. 2006. “Strategies for Mitigating an Influenza Pandemic.” Nature 442 (7101): 448–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kelsey, Jeffrey E., D. Jeffrey Newport, and Charles B. Nemeroff. 2006. Principles of Psychopharmacology for Mental Health Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Metcalfe, Andrew V. 2009. Introductory Time Series with R. Edited by Paul S. P. Cowpertwait. Use R. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Berg, Jeremias, and Matti Järvisalo. 2016. “Impact of SAT-Based Preprocessing on Core-Guided MaxSAT Solving.” In Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming: 22nd International Conference, CP 2016, Toulouse, France, September 5-9, 2016, Proceedings, edited by Michel Rueher, 66–85. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Science & Technological Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Dark Energy May Be Consuming Dark Matter.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. High-Speed Ground Transportation: Issues Affecting Development in the United States. RCED-94-29. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone, Brenda. 2017. “Efficacy of Collaborative Consulting Training Module.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, John. 2017. “What If Platforms Like Facebook Are Too Big to Regulate?” New York Times, October 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ross 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ross 2006; Vidale and Li 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vidale and Li 2003)
  • Three authors: (Feng, Zhang, and Huang 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ferguson et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Science & Technological Education
ISSN (print)0263-5143
ISSN (online)1470-1138

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