How to format your references using the Research in Science & Technological Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Science & Technological Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kidwell, Susan M. 2005. “Shell Composition Has No Net Impact on Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns in Mollusks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5711): 914–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fredrick, Kurt, and Harry F. Noller. 2003. “Catalysis of Ribosomal Translocation by Sparsomycin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5622): 1159–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Jun, Jing Zhu, and Hengqiang Ye. 2004. “Comment on ‘Tubular Graphite Cones.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5659): 766; author reply 766.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ma, Wei, Li-Xia Qin, Feng-Tao Liu, Zhen Gu, Jian Wang, Zhi Gang Pan, Tony D. James, and Yi-Tao Long. 2013. “Ubiquinone-Quantum Dot Bioconjugates for in Vitro and Intracellular Complex I Sensing.” Scientific Reports 3: 1537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epstein, Marcelo. 2012. The Elements of Continuum Biomechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lu, Xicheng, and Wei Zhao, eds. 2005. Networking and Mobile Computing: Third International Conference, ICCNMC 2005, Zhangjiajie, China, August 2-4, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3619. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pardoux, Etienne, and Aurel Răşcanu. 2014. “Backward Stochastic Differential Equations.” In Stochastic Differential Equations, Backward SDEs, Partial Differential Equations, edited by Aurel Rӑşcanu, 353–515. Stochastic Modelling and Applied Probability. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Science & Technological Education.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Antarctic Crater May Be From Recent Meteorite.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. A Structure for Managing ADP Resources. 113270. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, Charles Andrew. 2013. “Impact of Water Management and Agronomic Practices on the Performance of Insecticide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus Oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi Rice.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David A. 2006. “Calling From Abroad at Reasonable Rates.” New York Times, January 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kidwell 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kidwell 2005; Fredrick and Noller 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fredrick and Noller 2003)
  • Three authors: (Luo, Zhu, and Ye 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ma et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Science & Technological Education
ISSN (print)0263-5143
ISSN (online)1470-1138

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