How to format your references using the Research in Science & Technological Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Science & Technological Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brauman, John I. 2008. “Chemistry. Not so Simple.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5860): 168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paz-Silva, Gerardo A., and D. A. Lidar. 2013. “Optimally Combining Dynamical Decoupling and Quantum Error Correction.” Scientific Reports 3: 1530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otterbein, L. R., P. Graceffa, and R. Dominguez. 2001. “The Crystal Structure of Uncomplexed Actin in the ADP State.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5530): 708–711.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Herbst, William, Catrina M. Hamilton, Katherine LeDuc, Joshua N. Winn, Christopher M. Johns-Krull, Reinhard Mundt, and Mansur Ibrahimov. 2008. “Reflected Light from Sand Grains in the Terrestrial Zone of a Protoplanetary Disk.” Nature 452 (7184): 194–197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sizer, Andrew, Chandrika Balachandar, Nibedan Biswas, Richard Foon, Anthony Griffiths, Sheena Hodgett, Banchhita Sahu, and Martyn Underwood. 2016. Part 2 MRCOG: Single Best Answer Questions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Detyniecki, Marcin, Ana García-Serrano, and Andreas Nürnberger, eds. 2011. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval. Understanding Media and Adapting to the User: 7th International Workshop, AMR 2009, Madrid, Spain, September 24-25, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6535. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Audière, Stéphane, Maurice Charbit, Elsa D. Angelini, Jennifer Oudry, and Laurent Sandrin. 2010. “Measurement of the Skin-Liver Capsule Distance on Ultrasound RF Data for 1D Transient Elastography.” In Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2010: 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, edited by Tianzi Jiang, Nassir Navab, Josien P. W. Pluim, and Max A. Viergever, 34–41. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Science & Technological Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “DARPA Wants to Genetically Engineer Organisms to Terraform Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks. OIMC-92-3. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chhun, Surya. 2010. “Assessing the Role of Vacuolar Trafficking in Fifteen Candidate Env Genes at the Late Endosome to Vacuole Interface in S. Cerevisiae.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben, and Eric Schmitt. 2017. “State Crumbling, ISIS Is Reclaiming Insurgent Roots.” New York Times, July 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brauman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Brauman 2008; Paz-Silva and Lidar 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Paz-Silva and Lidar 2013)
  • Three authors: (Otterbein, Graceffa, and Dominguez 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Herbst et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Science & Technological Education
ISSN (print)0263-5143
ISSN (online)1470-1138

Other styles