How to format your references using the Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston, K. J. (2012). Ecology: the importance of being rare. Nature, 487(7405), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bundock, P., & Hooykaas, P. (2005). An Arabidopsis hAT-like transposase is essential for plant development. Nature, 436(7048), 282–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbot, S., Lapusta, N., & Avouac, J.-P. (2012). Under the hood of the earthquake machine: toward predictive modeling of the seismic cycle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6082), 707–710.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gilbert, B., Huang, F., Zhang, H., Waychunas, G. A., & Banfield, J. F. (2004). Nanoparticles: strained and stiff. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 651–654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayuela Valencia, R. (2013). The Future of the Chemical Industry by 2050. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Floriani, L. D., & Spagnuolo, M. (Eds.). (2008). Shape Analysis and Structuring. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cai, X., Wei, J., Wen, G., & Li, J. (2012). A Neighborhood Preserving Based Semi-supervised Dimensionality Reduction Method for Cancer Classification. In Y. Wang & T. Li (Eds.), Foundations of Intelligent Systems: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, Shanghai, China, Dec 2011 (ISKE2011) (pp. 29–37). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Renewables: Wind, Water, and Solar.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 7). New Study Supports Links Between Dementia And Vitamin D Deficiency. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Transfer Students: Postsecondary Institutions Could Promote More Consistent Consideration of Coursework by Not Basing Determinations on Accreditation (No. GAO-06-22). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roettger, M. E. (2008). Three essays on social inequality and the U.S. criminal justice system (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, July 12). Election Influence, Separate and Unequal. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaston 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bundock and Hooykaas 2005; Gaston 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bundock and Hooykaas 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gilbert et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleRenewables: Wind, Water, and Solar
ISSN (online)2198-994X

Other styles