How to format your references using the Quality & Quantity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quality & Quantity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Tale of two surveys. Nature. 434, 539 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, C.L., Novales Flamarique, I.: Opsin expression: new mechanism for modulating colour vision. Nature. 428, 279 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Healy, D., Jones, R.R., Holdsworth, R.E.: Three-dimensional brittle shear fracturing by tensile crack interaction. Nature. 439, 64–67 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, J.-T., Shi, Y.-Y., Sun, J., Lin, J., Huang, Z.-T., Zheng, Q.-Y.: Spontaneous chiral resolution directed by symmetry restriction and π-π interaction. Sci. Rep. 3, 2947 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein, P.D.: Pulmonary Embolism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Popovich, V.V., Schrenk, M., Korolenko, K.V. eds: Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Bender, W.: Types of Extrusion Units. In: Händle, F. (ed.) Extrusion in Ceramics. pp. 59–84. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quality & Quantity.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: New Evidence Suggests Tyrannosaurs Were Social Creatures


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Rail Safety: Federal Railroad Administration Should Report on Risks to the Successful Implementation of Mandated Safety Technology. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jo, S.M.: A study of Korean students’ creativity in science using structural equation modeling, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.: Top Sprinters Test Positive, Jolting Track World, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng and Novales Flamarique 2004; Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Novales Flamarique 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuality & Quantity
AbbreviationQual. Quant.
ISSN (print)0033-5177
ISSN (online)1573-7845
ScopeStatistics and Probability
General Social Sciences

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