How to format your references using the Quality & Quantity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quality & Quantity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manoharan, V.N.: COLLOIDS. Colloidal matter: Packing, geometry, and entropy. Science. 349, 1253751 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pizzari, T., Birkhead, T.R.: Female feral fowl eject sperm of subdominant males. Nature. 405, 787–789 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sarbu, T., Styranec, T., Beckman, E.J.: Non-fluorous polymers with very high solubility in supercritical CO2 down to low pressures. Nature. 405, 165–168 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Serre, C., Mellot-Draznieks, C., Surblé, S., Audebrand, N., Filinchuk, Y., Férey, G.: Role of solvent-host interactions that lead to very large swelling of hybrid frameworks. Science. 315, 1828–1831 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitale, J.: The Seven Lost Secrets of Success. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2007)
An edited book
Dobnikar, A., Lotrič, U., Šter, B. eds: Adaptive and Natural Computing Algorithms: 10th International Conference, ICANNGA 2011, Ljubljana, Slovenia, April 14-16, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Suleman, H., Feng, K., Mhlongo, S., Omar, M.: Flexing Digital Library Systems. In: Fox, E.A., Neuhold, E.J., Premsmit, P., and Wuwongse, V. (eds.) Digital Libraries: Implementing Strategies and Sharing Experiences: 8th International Conference on Asian Digital Libraries, ICADL 2005, Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-15, 2005. Proceedings. pp. 33–37. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quality & Quantity.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: What Makes The Spring Equinox?


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: VHA’s Management Improvement Initiative. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1996)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterjee, K.: A probabilistic mechanistic approach for assessing the rupture frequency of small modular reactor steam generator tubes using uncertain inputs from in-service inspections, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Colt, G.H.: Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manoharan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Manoharan 2015; Pizzari and Birkhead 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pizzari and Birkhead 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Serre et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuality & Quantity
AbbreviationQual. Quant.
ISSN (print)0033-5177
ISSN (online)1573-7845
ScopeStatistics and Probability
General Social Sciences

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