How to format your references using the Quality & Quantity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quality & Quantity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milonni, P.W.: Quantum decay. A watched pot boils quicker. Nature. 405, 525, 527 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage, A.E., Drakesmith, H.: Genetics. The battle for iron. Science. 346, 1299–1300 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker, J.J., Spear, J.R., Pace, N.R.: Geobiology of a microbial endolithic community in the Yellowstone geothermal environment. Nature. 434, 1011–1014 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fagarasan, S., Muramatsu, M., Suzuki, K., Nagaoka, H., Hiai, H., Honjo, T.: Critical roles of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the homeostasis of gut flora. Science. 298, 1424–1427 (2002)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pozzilli, P., Lenzi, A., Clarke, B.L., Young, W.F., Jr: Imaging in Endocrinology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
Bao, F., Weng, J. eds: Information Security Practice and Experience: 7th International Conference, ISPEC 2011, Guangzhou, China, May 30 – June 1, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Tondu, B.: Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints. In: Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Zhang, J.J., and Feng, D.D. (eds.) Recent Advances in the 3D Physiological Human. pp. 53–71. Springer, London (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quality & Quantity.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FAA Evacuation Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1993)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baggio, B.G.: Integrating social software into blended -learning courses: A Delphi study of instructional -design processes, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Maheshwari, S.: Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Milonni 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Armitage and Drakesmith 2014; Milonni 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armitage and Drakesmith 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Fagarasan et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuality & Quantity
AbbreviationQual. Quant.
ISSN (print)0033-5177
ISSN (online)1573-7845
ScopeStatistics and Probability
General Social Sciences

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