How to format your references using the QJM: An International Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Friedlander M. Physics: A century of cosmic rays. Nature. 2012 Mar 21;483(7390):400–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Raiborg C, Stenmark H. Cell biology. A helix for the final cut. Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1533–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Syntichaki P, Troulinaki K, Tavernarakis N. eIF4E function in somatic cells modulates ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 2007 Feb 22;445(7130):922–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Price TAR, Hodgson DJ, Lewis Z, Hurst GDD, Wedell N. Selfish genetic elements promote polyandry in a fly. Science. 2008 Nov 21;322(5905):1241–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bai Y. Practical Database Programming with Visual C#.NET. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Wang J, Cellary W, Wang D, Wang H, Chen S-C, Li T, et al., editors. Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2015: 16th International Conference, Miami, FL, USA, November 1-3, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVIII, 622 p. 219 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9418).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wu T, Chellappa R. Age Invariant Face Verification with Relative Craniofacial Growth Model. In: Fitzgibbon A, Lazebnik S, Perona P, Sato Y, Schmid C, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2012: 12th European Conference on Computer Vision, Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part VI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 58–71. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Humans Are Wired For Prejudice But That Doesn’t Have To Be The End Of The Story [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/humans-are-wired-prejudice-doesn-t-have-be-end-story/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission Can Further Improve Its Licensing Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Apr. Report No.: RCED-83-90.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Crawford JD. Teacher Job Satisfaction as Related to Student Performance on State-Mandated Testing [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Debt Plan Still Fragile for Puerto Rico Utility, Lawmakers Are Told. New York Times. 2016 Jan 13;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationQJM
ISSN (print)1460-2393
ISSN (online)1460-2725
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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