How to format your references using the QJM: An International Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
von Hillebrandt-Andrade C. Geophysics. Minimizing Caribbean tsunami risk. Science. 2013 Aug 30;341(6149):966–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen EH, Olson EN. Unveiling the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion. Science. 2005 Apr 15;308(5720):369–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Colón-Ramos DA, Margeta MA, Shen K. Glia promote local synaptogenesis through UNC-6 (netrin) signaling in C. elegans. Science. 2007 Oct 5;318(5847):103–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Flick K, Scholander C, Chen Q, Fernandez V, Pouvelle B, Gysin J, et al. Role of nonimmune IgG bound to PfEMP1 in placental malaria. Science. 2001 Sep 14;293(5537):2098–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gonzalez R, Qi F, Huang B. Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Gu Q, Hell P, Yang B, editors. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 10th International Conference, AAIM 2014, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 8-11, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XVI, 342 p. 83 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 8546).
A chapter in an edited book
Fröhlich J, Wachsmuth I. Combining Multi-Sensory Stimuli in Virtual Worlds – A Progress Report. In: Shumaker R, Lackey S, editors. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality Designing and Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments: 6th International Conference, VAMR 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 44–54. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Kobsa A, Mattern F, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Can You Solve These 5 Physics Phenomena? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Distance Learning: Opportunities Exist for DOD to Capitalize on Services’ Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Dec. Report No.: NSIAD-98-63R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmes K. Ethical practice online: An exploration of provider liability risk among practitioners in the emerging field of online therapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russia Inaugurates Book Prize. It’s Big. New York Times. 2006 Nov 23;E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1460-2393
ISSN (online)1460-2725
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles