How to format your references using the QJM: An International Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heimann M. Obituary: Charles David Keeling 1928-2005. Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang J, Zhao Y. Formation of zirconium metallic glass. Nature. 2004 Jul 15;430(6997):332–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripathi S, Li H, Poulos TL. Structural basis for effector control and redox partner recognition in cytochrome P450. Science. 2013 Jun 7;340(6137):1227–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tanabe T, Kuwabara T, Warashina M, Tani K, Taira K, Asano S. Oncogene inactivation in a mouse model. Nature. 2000 Aug 3;406(6795):473–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams N. Eclipse of Grace. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Leitner S, Wall F, editors. Artificial Economics and Self Organization: Agent-Based Approaches to Economics and Social Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XV, 256 p. 88 illus., 49 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems; vol. 669).
A chapter in an edited book
Ma Y-F, Li HX, Sun P. A Lightweight Agent Fabric for Service Autonomy. In: Huang J, Kowalczyk R, Maamar Z, Martin D, Müller I, Stoutenburg S, et al., editors. Service-Oriented Computing: Agents, Semantics, and Engineering: AAMAS 2007 International Workshop, SOCASE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 63–77. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. 11 Key Findings From One Of The Most Comprehensive Reports Ever On The Health Effects Of Marijuana [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Support for the Assessment Panel Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Jan. Report No.: 127085.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffman KD. Teacher and administrator perceptions of a balanced school calendar and its effects on students in poverty [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu W, Singer JE. To Immigrants Dollar Stores Are a Step Up. New York Times. 2017 Sep 13;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
ISSN (print)1460-2393
ISSN (online)1460-2725
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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