How to format your references using the QJM: An International Journal of Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
van der Leij MJ. Sociology. Experimenting with buddies. Science. 2011 Dec 2;334(6060):1220–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tobias DJ, Hemminger JC. Chemistry. Getting specific about specific ion effects. Science. 2008 Feb 29;319(5867):1197–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Padian K, de Ricqlès AJ, Horner JR. Dinosaurian growth rates and bird origins. Nature. 2001 Jul 26;412(6845):405–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Schmeing TM, Voorhees RM, Kelley AC, Gao Y-G, Murphy FV 4th, Weir JR, et al. The crystal structure of the ribosome bound to EF-Tu and aminoacyl-tRNA. Science. 2009 Oct 30;326(5953):688–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mackevičius V. Integral and Measure. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
MacEntee K, Burkholder C, Schwab-Cartas J, editors. What’s a Cellphilm?: Integrating Mobile Phone Technology into Participatory Visual Research and Activism. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2016. VIII, 220 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Au WWL, Hastings MC. Signal Recording and Data Acquisition. In: Hastings MC, editor. Principles of Marine Bioacoustics. New York, NY: Springer US; 2008. p. 121–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for QJM: An International Journal of Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Felton J. Male Scientist Claims Lesbianism Evolved Because Men Like It. Gay Community Disagrees [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/male-scientist-claims-lesbianism-evolved-because-men-like-it-gay-community-disagrees/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Strengthen Testing of 2010 Decennial Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Mar. Report No.: GAO-09-413T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Sahib SS. Numerical solutions of Maxwell’s equations in 1D, 2D, and 3D via the finite element method [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2017 May 19;MM26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleQJM: An International Journal of Medicine
AbbreviationQJM
ISSN (print)1460-2393
ISSN (online)1460-2725
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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