How to format your references using the Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Farese, Technology: How to build a low-energy future, Nature. 488 (2012) 275–277.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.L. Rudolph, S. Zhong, Does quadrupole stability imply LLSVP fixity?, Nature. 503 (2013) E3-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.B. Daeschler, N.H. Shubin, F.A. Jenkins Jr, A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan, Nature. 440 (2006) 757–763.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.N. Freiman, S.R. Albright, S. Zheng, W.C. Sha, R.E. Hammer, R. Tjian, Requirement of tissue-selective TBP-associated factor TAFII105 in ovarian development, Science. 293 (2001) 2084–2087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.J. Stoker, Differential Geometry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1988.
An edited book
K.J. Kim, K.-Y. Chung, eds., IT Convergence and Security 2012, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Fröhlich, Solar Irradiance Variability Since 1978, in: Y. Calisesi, R.-M. Bonnet, L. Gray, J. Langen, M. Lockwood (Eds.), Solar Variability and Planetary Climates, Springer, New York, NY, 2007: pp. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

Blog post
J. Davis, Sex Differences In Chimp Tool Use Switch Later In Life, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.T. Veru, The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, M. Haberman, Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
AbbreviationPulm. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1094-5539
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Pharmacology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles