How to format your references using the Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H.E. Frimmel, Geology. Genesis of the world’s largest gold deposits, Science. 297 (2002) 1815–1817.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.M. Behar, E.H. Baehrecke, Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer, Nature. 528 (2015) 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Scholz, M. Franz, U. Heberlein, The hangover gene defines a stress pathway required for ethanol tolerance development, Nature. 436 (2005) 845–847.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Takáts, J.M. Wiseman, B. Gologan, R.G. Cooks, Mass spectrometry sampling under ambient conditions with desorption electrospray ionization, Science. 306 (2004) 471–473.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Shook, The God Debates, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
D.A. Gomes, Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. van der Plicht, Radiocarbon, the Calibration Curve and Scythian Chronology, in: E. Marian Scott, A.Y. Alekseev, G. Zaitseva (Eds.), Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, EU Will Ignore White House And Work Directly With US States On Paris Agreement, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Automated Information Systems: Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Dickinson, Best practices in integrating acquisitions, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
N. MacFARQUHAR, S. Kishkovsky, Russian History Gets a Makeover That Starts With Ivan the Terrible, New York Times. (2015) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
AbbreviationPulm. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1094-5539
ScopeBiochemistry, medical
Pharmacology (medical)
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles