How to format your references using the Psychology of Sport & Exercise citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Sport & Exercise. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N. (2015). Mobile data: Made to measure. Nature, 527(7576), S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pujolle-Robic, C., & Noirez, L. (2001). Observation of shear-induced nematic-isotropic transition in side-chain liquid crystal polymers. Nature, 409(6817), 167–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohtsuki, H., Iwasa, Y., & Nowak, M. A. (2009). Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment. Nature, 457(7225), 79–82.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yin, Y., Liu, Y.-X., Jin, Y. J., Hall, E. J., & Barrett, J. C. (2003). PAC1 phosphatase is a transcription target of p53 in signalling apoptosis and growth suppression. Nature, 422(6931), 527–531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton, A. C. (2010). 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Tonolini, M., & Maconi, G. (Eds.). (2013). Imaging of Perianal Inflammatory Diseases. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, T., Wu, B., Li, Y., Liu, H., Li, L., Zhang, L., Song, F., Zhao, C., Dong, L., He, C., Zhang, Y., & Yuan, W. (2016). Metrics for Gauging Model Performance Over the East Asian–Western Pacific Domain. In T. Zhou, T. Wu, W. Xue, & G. Zhou (Eds.), Development and Evaluation of High Resolution Climate System Models (pp. 209–256). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Sport & Exercise.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 28). Biggest Misconceptions About The Universe Explained. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Student Achievement Standards and Testing (T-PEMD-93-1). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scaringe, J. G. (2010). An investigation into the faculty development practices in chiropractic education programs [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M. (2017, July 7). Defining Success. New York Times, SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pujolle-Robic & Noirez, 2001; Savage, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pujolle-Robic & Noirez, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Ohtsuki et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yin et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Sport & Exercise
AbbreviationPsychol. Sport Exerc.
ISSN (print)1469-0292
ScopeApplied Psychology

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