How to format your references using the Psychology of Sport & Exercise citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Sport & Exercise. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich, E. S. (2009). Whistleblowers at risk as science fails to correct itself. Nature, 460(7258), 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aragão, L. E. O. C., & Shimabukuro, Y. E. (2010). The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5983), 1275–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cremer, S., Sledge, M. F., & Heinze, J. (2002). Chemical mimicry: male ants disguised by the queen’s bouquet. Nature, 419(6910), 897.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shindell, D. T., Faluvegi, G., Koch, D. M., Schmidt, G. A., Unger, N., & Bauer, S. E. (2009). Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5953), 716–718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agachi, P. Ş., Nagy, Z. K., Cristea, M. V., & Imre-Lucaci, Á. (2006). Model Based Control. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Akhgar, B., & Yates, S. (Eds.). (2011). Intelligence Management: Knowledge Driven Frameworks for Combating Terrorism and Organized Crime. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng, X., Wang, Y., Wu, F., Zhang, T., & Li, Z. (2014). The Integrated CGE Model Construction. In Y. Wang, F. Wu, T. Zhang, & Z. Li (Eds.), Integrated River Basin Management: Practice Guideline for the IO Table Compilation and CGE Modeling (pp. 57–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Sport & Exercise.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, November 5). Vast Magma Chambers Detected Beneath Mount St. Helens. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Attack Warning: Costs to Modernize NORAD’s Computer System Significantly Understated (IMTEC-91-23). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reitz, M. A. (2016). Nonlinear Robust Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Applications to Hybrid Electric Vehicles [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J. (2017, August 2). In Brooklyn, a Hunt For the Perfect Fit. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reich, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Aragão & Shimabukuro, 2010; Reich, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aragão & Shimabukuro, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Cremer et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shindell et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Sport & Exercise
AbbreviationPsychol. Sport Exerc.
ISSN (print)1469-0292
ScopeApplied Psychology

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