How to format your references using the Psychology, Crime & Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology, Crime & Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nowlan, W. (2002). Human genetics. A rational view of insurance and genetic discrimination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5579), 195–196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Balazs, A. C., & Epstein, I. R. (2009). Chemistry. Emergent or just complex? Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1632–1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galy, V., Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., & Eglinton, T. (2015). Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion. Nature, 521(7551), 204–207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Higham, T., Compton, T., Stringer, C., Jacobi, R., Shapiro, B., Trinkaus, E., … Fagan, M. (2011). The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe. Nature, 479(7374), 521–524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandler, C. (2010). The Science of ADHD. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Zimmern, P. E., Norton, P. A., Haab, F., & Chapple, C. C. R. (Eds.). (2006). Vaginal Surgery for Incontinence and Prolapse. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dyreson, C., & Jin, H. (2009). A Synthetic, Trend-Based Benchmark for XPath. In L. Chen, C. Liu, Q. Liu, & K. Deng (Eds.), Database Systems for Advanced Applications: DASFAA 2009 International Workshops: BenchmarX, MCIS, WDPP, PPDA, MBC, PhD, Brisbane, Australia, April 20 - 23, 2009 (pp. 35–48). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology, Crime & Law.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, June 5). Astronomers Discover Planet That Is Hotter Than Most Stars. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Americans With Disabilities Act: Challenges Faced by Transit Agencies in Complying With the Act’s Requirements (No. RCED-94-58). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Catalini, M. (2012). Intrinsic rewards increase job performance within an organization (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., Green, J., & Soloski, A. (2017, August 16). Too Soon? Or Right on Cue? New York Times, p. AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nowlan, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Balazs & Epstein, 2009; Nowlan, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Balazs & Epstein, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Galy, Peucker-Ehrenbrink, & Eglinton, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Higham et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology, Crime & Law
AbbreviationPsychol. Crime Law
ISSN (print)1068-316X
ISSN (online)1477-2744
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine
General Psychology

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