How to format your references using the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, R., 2015. Charles H. Townes (1915-2015). Nature 519, 292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, W.E., Relling, M.V., 2004. Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics. Nature 429, 464–468.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nørskov, J.K., Bligaard, T., Kleis, J., 2009. Chemistry. Rate control and reaction engineering. Science 324, 1655–1656.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chandramohanadas, R., Davis, P.H., Beiting, D.P., Harbut, M.B., Darling, C., Velmourougane, G., Lee, M.Y., Greer, P.A., Roos, D.S., Greenbaum, D.C., 2009. Apicomplexan parasites co-opt host calpains to facilitate their escape from infected cells. Science 324, 794–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner-Martin, L., 2012. A History of American Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Iskra-Golec, I., Barnes-Farrell, J., Bohle, P. (Eds.), 2016. Social and Family Issues in Shift Work and Non Standard Working Hours. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Steensma, A.B., 2008. The Central and Posterior Compartments, in: Hoyte, L.P.J., Steensma, A.B. (Eds.), Atlas of Pelvic Floor Ultrasound. Springer, London, pp. 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Madagascar’s ‘Swamp Lemurs’ Have Been Documented For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. In-Flight Escape Systems for Helicopters Should Be Developed To Prevent Fatalities (No. B-177166). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons-Johnson, N., 2012. The path to graduation: A model interactive Web site design supporting doctoral students (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. An Obvious Case For Instant Replay. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd, 2015; Evans and Relling, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Relling, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Chandramohanadas et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
AbbreviationPsychiatry Res. Neuroimaging
ISSN (print)0925-4927
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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