How to format your references using the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hawley, R.S., 2011. Molecular biology. Hitting a tiny target in the dark. Science 331, 870–871.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwander, T., Keller, L., 2008. Genetic compatibility affects queen and worker caste determination. Science 322, 552.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, X., Fauqué, B., Behnia, K., 2015. SOLID-STATE PHYSICS. Scalable T2 resistivity in a small single-component Fermi surface. Science 349, 945–948.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wallingford, J.B., Rowning, B.A., Vogeli, K.M., Rothbächer, U., Fraser, S.E., Harland, R.M., 2000. Dishevelled controls cell polarity during Xenopus gastrulation. Nature 405, 81–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lloyd, R.V. (Ed.), 2010. Endocrine Pathology: Differential Diagnosis and Molecular Advances, Second. ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Endrullis, J., Grabmayer, C., Hendriks, D., Klop, J.W., de Vrijer, R., 2009. Proving Infinitary Normalization, in: Berardi, S., Damiani, F., de’Liguoro, U. (Eds.), Types for Proofs and Programs: International Conference, TYPES 2008 Torino, Italy, March 26-29, 2008 Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 64–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Moron Allegedly Punches Hammerhead Shark To Death On Beach [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Motor Carrier Academy (No. RCED-95-43R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turpin-Padberg, S., 2017. Effects of Elementary Teacher Preparation and Support on Retention (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J., 2016. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hawley, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hawley, 2011; Schwander and Keller, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schwander and Keller, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallingford et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
AbbreviationPsychiatry Res. Neuroimaging
ISSN (print)0925-4927
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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