How to format your references using the Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnstone, R.A., 2002. The evolution of inaccurate mimics. Nature 418, 524–526.
A journal article with 2 authors
Asimow, P.D., Langmuir, C.H., 2003. The importance of water to oceanic mantle melting regimes. Nature 421, 815–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kahn, S.E., Hull, R.L., Utzschneider, K.M., 2006. Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nature 444, 840–846.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sandler, N., Kassamakov, I., Ehlers, H., Genina, N., Ylitalo, T., Haeggstrom, E., 2014. Rapid interferometric imaging of printed drug laden multilayer structures. Sci. Rep. 4, 4020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chevallier, J., Ielpo, F., 2013. The Economics of Commodity Markets. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Leemans, R. (Ed.), 2013. Ecological Systems: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Chayadevi, M.L., Raju, G.T., 2015. Automated Colour Segmentation of Malaria Parasite with Fuzzy and Fractal Methods, in: Jain, L.C., Behera, H.S., Mandal, J.K., Mohapatra, D.P. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Data Mining - Volume 3: Proceedings of the International Conference on CIDM, 20-21 December 2014, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 53–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Could Early Infant Screening And Intervention Help Prevent Autism? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Analysis of NASA’s Supplemental FY 1979 Budget Request (No. PSAD-79-59). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Q., 2013. East Asian backpacker tourists’ motivations for participating in backpacking (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J., 2016. Devising Real Ethics for Artificial Intelligence. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnstone, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Asimow and Langmuir, 2003; Johnstone, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Asimow and Langmuir, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Sandler et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
AbbreviationPsychiatry Res. Neuroimaging
ISSN (print)0925-4927
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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